Practical Exercises in English


Copyright, 1895, by Harper & Brothers
All rights reserved.
W.P. 17


The art of using one's native tongue correctly and forcibly is acquired for the most part through imitation and practice, and is not so much a matter of knowledge as of habit. As regards English, then, the first duty of our schools is to set before pupils excellent models, and, in all departments of school-work, to keep a watchful eye on the innumerable acts of expression, oral and written, which go to form habit. Since, however, pupils come to school with many of their habits of expression already formed on bad models, our schools must give some attention to the special work of pointing out common errors of speech, and of leading pupils to convert knowledge of these errors into new and correct habits of expression. This is the branch of English teaching in which this little book hopes to be useful.

All the "Exercises in English" with which I am acquainted consist chiefly of "sentences to be corrected." To such exercises there are grave objections. If, on the one hand, the fault in the given sentence is not seen at a glance, the pupil is likely, as experience has shown, to pass it by and to change something that is not wrong. If, on the other hand, the fault is obvious, the exercise has no value in the formation of habit. Take, for example, two "sentences for correction" which I select at random from one of the most widely used books of its class: "I knew it was him," and "Sit the plates on the table." A pupil of any wit will at once see that the mistakes must be in "him" and "sit," and knowing that the alternatives are "he" and "set," he will at once correct the sentences without knowing, perhaps, why one form is wrong, the other right. He has not gained anything valuable; he has simply "slid" through his exercise. Moreover, such "sentences for correction" violate a fundamental principle of teaching English by setting before the impressionable minds of pupils bad models. Finally, such exercises are unnatural, because the habit which we hope to form in our pupils is not the habit of correcting mistakes, but the habit of avoiding them.

Correct English is largely a matter of correct choice between two or more forms of expression, and in this book an attempt has been made, as a glance at the pages will show, to throw the exercises, whenever possible, into a form consistent with this truth. Though a pupil may change "who" to "whom" without knowing why, he cannot repeatedly choose correctly between these forms without strengthening his own habit of correct expression.

This book has been prepared primarily as a companion to Professor A.S. Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric," in answer to the request of many teachers for exercises to use with that admirable work.[1] Without the friendly encouragement of Professor Hill the task would not have been undertaken, and to him above all others I am indebted for assistance in completing it. He has permitted me to draw freely on his published works; he has provided me with advance sheets of the revised edition of "Principles of Rhetoric;" he has put at my disposal much useful material gleaned from his own experience; he has read the manuscript and proofs, and, without assuming any responsibility for shortcomings, he has suggested many improvements. I am also indebted to Mr. E.G. Coy, Headmaster of the Hotchkiss School, for many valuable suggestions, and to my colleague, Mr. J.E. Barss, for assistance in the proof-reading.

The quotations from "The Century Dictionary" are made under an arrangement with the owners of the copyright of that work. I am also indebted to Professor Barrett Wendell, Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and Messrs. Macmillan & Co. for permission to use brief quotations from their works.


LAKEVILLE, CONN., September, 1895.

[1] See Appendix: Suggestions to Teachers.








Why is it that for the purposes of English composition one word is not so good as another? To this question we shall get a general answer if we examine the effect of certain classes of expressions.

Present Use.—Let us examine first the effect produced by three passages in the authorized version of the English Bible—a version made by order of King James in 1611:—

"For these two years hath the famine been in the land, and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest" (Gen. xlv. 6).

"O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will ye love vanity, and seek after leasing?" (Psa. iv. 2).

"Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, but was let hitherto" (Rom. i. 18).

See also Gen. xxv. 29; Matt. iii 8; Acts viii. 3; 1 Thess. iv. 15.

An ordinary reader of our time cannot without assistance fully understand these passages, because the words "earing," "leasing," and "let" convey to his mind either no idea at all or a wrong idea. Two hundred and eighty years ago, when this translation of the Bible was made, these words were common words with plain meanings; but "earing" and "leasing" have since dropped out of common use, and "let" has acquired a different meaning; consequently an ordinary reader of the present time must consult a dictionary before he can be sure what the passages mean. Words and meanings which have gone out of use are called obsolete. There is not much temptation to use obsolete words; but the temptation sometimes comes. Therefore we note, as our first conclusion, that a person who wishes to be understood must avoid expressions and meanings which are not in present use.

National Use.—A boy from southern Pennsylvania was visiting in New York State. In the midst of some preparations for a fishing excursion he said to his host, "Shall I take my gums along?" His host burst out laughing and said, "Of course; did you think of taking them out of your mouth and leaving them at home?"[2] Unconsciously the boy had used a good English word in a sense peculiar to the district in which he lived; his host had understood the word in its proper sense.

On another occasion a gentleman who had just arrived at a hotel in Kennebunkport, Me., agreed to a proposal to "go down to the beach in the barge." Going to his room, he prepared for a little excursion on the river which flowed by the hotel. When he returned, he was greatly surprised to find his friends about to start for the beach in a large omnibus. Another gentleman once asked a young lady to go "riding" with him. At the appointed hour he drove to her house in a buggy, and she came down to meet him in her riding habit.

These incidents show that if we use expressions that are only local, or use words in local senses, we are liable either to be misunderstood or not to be understood at all. Obscurity also arises from the use of words in senses which are peculiar to a certain class or profession. For example, to a person who is not familiar with commercial slang, this sentence from the market columns of a newspaper is a puzzle:—

"Java coffees are dull and easy, though they are statistically strong."

The following directions for anchoring in a gale of wind are taken from a book called "How to Sail a Boat":—

"When everything is ready, bring the yacht to the wind, and let
the sails shake in the wind's eye; and, so soon as she gets
stern-way, let go the best bower anchor, taking care not to
snub her too quickly, but to let considerable of the cable run
out before checking her; then take a turn or two around the
knight-heads," etc.

If a landsman's safety depended on his understanding these directions, there would not be much hope for him.

The following extract is from a newspaper report of a game of ball:—

"In the eighth inning Anson jumped from one box into the other and
whacked a wide one into extreme right. It was a three-base jolt
and was made when Gastright intended to force the old man to
first. The Brooklyns howled and claimed that Anson was out, but
McQuaid thought differently. Both teams were crippled. Lange will
be laid up for a week or so. One pitcher was batted out of the

This narrative may seem commonplace to school-boys, but to their mothers and sisters it must seem alarming.

Our second conclusion, therefore, is that a person who wishes to be understood must avoid words and phrases that are not understood, and understood in the same sense, in every part of the country, and in every class or profession.[3]

Reputable Use.—Let us examine now the effect produced by a third kind of expression, namely, words and phrases "not used by writers and speakers of established reputation."[4] Let us take as our illustrations the familiar expressions, "He done it" and "Please set in this seat." Each of these expressions is common at the present time, and its meaning is instantly clear to any one who speaks English. But these expressions, not being used by well-informed and careful speakers, produce in the mind of a well-informed bearer an impression of vulgarity like that which we get from seeing a person eat with his knife. In language, as in manners and fashions, the law is found in the custom of the best people; and persons who wish to be classed as cultivated people must speak and write like cultivated people. There is no moral wrong in a person's saying "Please set in this seat," and if he does say it he will probably be understood; but persons who use this or any other expression which is not in reputable use run the risk of being classed as ignorant, affected, or vulgar.

Good Use.—It appears, therefore, that words and phrases, in order to be proper expressions for use in English prose, (1) must be in common use at the present time; (2) they must be used, and used in the same sense, in every part of the country, and in every class and profession; (3) they must be expressions used by writers and speakers of established reputation. In other words, our expressions must be in present, national, and reputable use. Expressions which fulfil these three conditions are said to be in good use.

The next question that presents itself to one who wishes to use English correctly is, How am I to know what words and expressions are in good use?

Conversation and Good Use.—Good use cannot be determined solely by observing the conversation of our associates; for the chances are that they use many local expressions, some slang, and possibly some vulgarisms. "You often hear it" is not proof that an expression is in good use.

Newspapers and Good Use.—Nor can good use be learned from what we see in newspapers. Newspapers of high rank contain from time to time, especially in their editorial columns, some of the best modern prose, and much literature that has become standard was first printed in periodicals; but most of the prose in newspapers is written necessarily by contributors who do not belong to the class of "speakers or writers whom the world deems the best." As the newspaper in its news records the life of every day, so in its style it too frequently records the slang of daily life and the faults of ordinary conversation. A newspaper contains bits of English prose from hundreds of different pens, some skilled, some unskilled; and this jumble of styles does not determine good use.

No one Book or Writer Decisive.—Nor is good use to be learned from our favorite author, unsupported by other authority; not even, as we have seen, from the English Bible, when it stands alone. No writer, even the greatest, is free from occasional errors; but these accidental slips are not to be considered in determining good use. Good use is decided by the prevailing usage of the writers whose works make up permanent English literature, not by their inadvertencies. "The fact that Shakspere uses a word, or Sir Walter Scott, or Burke, or Washington Irving, or whoever happens to be writing earnestly in Melbourne or Sidney, does not make it reputable. The fact that all five of these authorities use the word in the same sense would go very far to establish the usage. On the other hand, the fact that any number of newspaper reporters agree in usage does not make the usage reputable. The style of newspaper reporters is not without merit; it is very rarely unreadable; but for all its virtue it is rarely a well of English undefiled."[5]

"Reputable use is fixed, not by the practice of those whom A or B deems the best speakers or writers, but by the practice of those whom the world deems the best,—those who are in the best repute, not indeed as to thought, but as to expression, the manner of communicating thought. The practice of no one writer, however high he may stand in the public estimation, is enough to settle a point; but the uniform or nearly uniform practice of reputable speakers or writers is decisive."[6]

Good Reading the Foundation of Good Speaking and Writing.—To the question how to become familiar with good use the first answer is, read the best literature. Language, like manners, is learned for the most part by imitation; and a person who is familiar with the language of reputable writers and speakers will use good English without conscious effort, just as a child brought up among refined people generally has good manners without knowing it. Good reading is indispensable to good speaking or writing. Without this, rules and dictionaries are of no avail. In reading the biographies of eminent writers, it is interesting to note how many of them were great readers when they were young; and teachers can testify that the best writers among their pupils are those who have read good literature or who have been accustomed to hear good English at home. The student of expression should begin at once to make the acquaintance of good literature.

The Use of Dictionaries.—To become acquainted with good literature, however, takes a long time; and to decide, by direct reference to the usage of the best writers, every question that arises in composition, is not possible for beginners. In certain cases beginners must go to dictionaries to learn what good use approves. Dictionaries do not make good use, but by recording the facts learned by professional investigators they answer many questions regarding it. To one who wishes to speak and write well a good dictionary is indispensable.

"The Foundations of Rhetoric."—Dictionaries, however, are not always a sufficient guide; for, being records, they aim to give all the senses in which a word is used, and do not always tell which sense is approved by the best usage. Large dictionaries contain many words which have gone out of good use and other words which have not yet come into good use. Moreover, they treat of words only, not of constructions and long expressions. Additional help in determining good use is required by beginners, and this help is to be found in such books as Professor A.S. Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric." The investigations of a specialist are there recorded in a convenient form, with particular reference to the needs of beginners and of those who have been under the influence of bad models. Common errors are explained and corrected, and the fundamental merits of good expression are set forth and illustrated.

Purpose of these Exercises.—In the following exercises, which are intended for drill on some of these elements of good expression, care has been taken to put the questions into the forms in which they arise in actual composition. The notes which precede the exercises are only hints; for
full discussions of the principles involved the student must consult
larger works.

Some Convenient Names 
BARBARISMS: Words and   phrases not English; _i.e.,_ not authorized by good English use. The name comes from a Greek word meaning "foreign," "strange."


Phrases that have gone out of use, said to be ARCHAIC or OBSOLETE.

Brand-new words which have not become established in good use: as, "burglarize," "enthuse," "electrocute."

Phrases introduced from foreign countries (called FOREIGNISMS, ALIENISMS), or peculiar to some district or province (called PROVINCIALISMS). A phrase introduced from France is called a Gallicism; from England, an Anglicism. A phrase peculiar to America is called an Americanism. Similarly we have the terms Latinism, Hellenism, Teutonism, etc. All these names may be applied also to certain kinds of Improprieties and Solecisms.  

IMPROPRIETIES: Good English words or phrases used in wrong senses: as, "I guess I'll go to bed;" "He is stopping for a week at the Berkshire Inn."


Most errors in the use of English are Improprieties, which are far more common than Barbarisms and Solecisms. No classification of them is here attempted.

SOLECISMS: Constructions not English, commonly called cases of "bad grammar" or "false syntax": as, "She invited Mrs. Roe and I to go driving with her." "Solecism" is derived from Soli, the name of a Greek tribe who lived in Cilicia and spoke bad Greek.

SLANG is a general name for current, vulgar, unauthorized language. It may take the form of barbarism, impropriety, or solecism.

A COLLOQUIALISM is an expression peculiar to familiar conversation.

A VULGARISM is an expression peculiar to vulgar or ignorant people.

[2] This and the two following incidents are from the writer's own
[3] A.S. Hill: Foundations of Rhetoric, p. 28.
[4] Ibid., p. 20.
[5] Barrett Wendell: English Composition, p. 21.
[6] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 16.


1. Make a list of the provincial expressions you can think of, and give their equivalents in national English.
2. Make a list of the slang or vulgar expressions you can think of, and give their equivalents in reputable English.
3. Make a list of the words, forms, and phrases not in present use which you can find in the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, authorized version, and give their equivalents in modern English.


Which word in the following pairs should an American prefer? Consult Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric," pp. 28-29: Coal, coals; jug, pitcher; street railway, tramway; post-card, postal-card; depôt, station.


1. Arrange the following words in two columns, putting in the first column words that are in good use, in the second, words that are not in good use. Consult Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric," pp. 27-29: Omnibus, succotash, welkin, ere, née, depôt, veto, function (in the sense of social entertainment), to pan out, twain, on the docket, kine, gerrymander, carven, caucus, steed, to coast (on sled or bicycle), posted (informed), to watch out, right (very).
2. Give good English equivalents for the words which are not in good use.



A or An.[7]—The choice between these forms is determined by
sound, not by spelling. Before a consonant sound "a" is used; before a
vowel sound "an" is used.

[7] "Foundations," pp. 32-36.


Put the proper form, "a" or "an," before each of these expressions:—Elephant, apple, egg, union of states, uniform, uninformed person, universal custom, umpire, Unitarian church, anthem, unfortunate man, united people, American, European, Englishman, one, high hill, horse, honorable career, hypocrite, humble spirit, honest boy, hypothesis, history, historical sketch, heir, hundred, hereditary disease, household.

The or A.[8]—"The" is a broken-down form of the old English thoet, from which we also get "that," and is used to point out some particular person, thing, or class: as, "The headmaster of the school gave the boys permission." When "the" is used before the name of a particular class of persons or things it is called the "generic" article (from genus, "a class"): as, "None but the brave deserve the fair"; "The eagle is our national bird."

"An" ("a") is a broken-down form of the old English word ane, meaning "one." It is properly used when the object is thought of as one of a class: as, "There is an eagle in the zoological garden." It cannot properly be used before a word which is used as a class name, because a class name includes in its meaning more than "one."

Superfluous and Omitted Articles.[9]—The use of a superfluous "a" or "an" before a class name, especially after the words "sort" and "kind," is a common and obstinate error. We may say, "This is an eagle," meaning "one eagle." But we may not say, "An eagle is our national bird," "This is a rare kind of an eagle," or, "It is not worthy of the name of an eagle"; because in these sentences "eagle" is used as the name, not of a single bird, but of a class of birds, and includes in its meaning all the birds which belong to the class called "eagle." The sentences are equivalent to: "The kind of bird called 'eagle' is our national bird;" "This is a rare species of the class of birds called 'eagle;'" "It is not worthy of the name given to the birds which belong to the class called 'eagle.'"

[8] Ibid., pp. 33-34.


Tell the difference in meaning between:—

1. The (a) house is on fire.
2. Yes, I heard (the) shouts in the street.
3. About eight o'clock (the) guests began to come.
4. Yes, I heard (the) noises in the next room.
5. The (an) elephant stood on a cask, and the (a) clown sat on the elephant's back.
6. The President has appointed a commission to investigate the cause of (the) strikes.
7. Will he let us look at (the) stars through the (a) telescope?
8. (The) teacher and (the) pupil are interested in this question.
9. He told us about an (the) accident.
10. Fire is beautiful. The fire is beautiful.
11. He was a better scholar than (an) athlete.
12. A young and (a) delicate girl.
13. He liked the bread and (the) butter.
14. A pink and (a) lavender gown.
15. The wise and (the) good.
16. Wanted, a cook and (a) housemaid.
17. The black and (the) white cow.
18. The athlete, (the) soldier, (the) statesman, and (the) poet.
19. A secretary and (a) treasurer.
20. The corresponding and (the) recording secretary.
21. The honest, (the) wise, and (the) patriotic senators voted against the bill.
22. A cotton and (a) silk umbrella.
23. The tenth and (the) last chapter.

[9] "Foundations," pp. 34-39.


Insert the proper article ("a," "an," or "the") in each blank place in
the following, if an article is needed; if no article is needed, leave the
place blank

1. I began to suffer from —— want of food.
2. There are two articles, the definite and —— indefinite.
3. He did not say what kind of —— horse he wanted to buy.
4. Did Macaulay die of —— heart disease?
5. Nouns have two numbers, —— singular and —— plural.
6. —— third and —— fourth page are to be learned.
7. —— third and —— fourth pages are to be learned.
8. Many names of —— states are derived from —— Indian tongues.
9. This is a curious species of —— rose.
10. Study carefully —— first and —— second chapters.
11. A black and —— white boy were walking together.
12. —— violet is my favorite flower; —— robin, my favorite bird.
13. There is an impenetrable veil between —— visible and —— invisible world.
14. —— lion is —— king of beasts.
15. Thackeray was a greater writer than —— artist. Thackeray was greater as —— writer than as —— artist.
16. The bank closed its doors from —— lack of ready money.
17. I despise not —— giver, but —— gift.
18. —— whole is greater than any of its parts.
19. He is entitled to the name of —— scholar.
20. I do not use that sort of —— pen.
21. In —— warm weather you do not need so many wraps as in —— cold weather.
22. The Queen conferred on Tennyson the title of —— baron.
23. It does not matter what kind of —— man is appointed.
24. It is found in both —— old and —— new editions.
25. The fourth and —— fifth verse.
26. The fourth and —— fifth verses.
27. Abraham Lincoln was —— great and —— good man.
28. —— families of —— strikers are sadly in —— need of food.
29. Here are two bottles, —— one empty, —— other full of —— red liquid.
30. Ariel had —— power to control —— sea.
31. Evangeline travelled far in —— search of Gabriel.
33. Illustrate by an original sentence —— preterite and —— past participle of the following verbs.
33. To —— student of Latin or Greek a knowledge of —— difference in meaning in English between —— indicative and —— subjunctive is especially important.
34. In the verb "to be" —— present and —— past subjunctives have different forms.
35. —— life in Madras in —— time of Clive was different from what it is now.
36. I like so many sports that it is hard to tell which I like —— best.
I like swimming, foot-ball, and riding more than —— others, but I do not know which of these three I like —— best.



How to Form the Possessive Case.[10]—As a rule, the possessive of nouns in the SINGULAR number is formed by adding an apostrophe and "s" ('s): as, "The boy's coat." Often the pronunciation of the added "s" makes a new syllable; and if this additional syllable makes an unpleasant sound, the possessive is indicated by the apostrophe alone ('): as, "For goodness' sake." The putting in or the leaving out of the "s" in such cases is chiefly a matter of taste. If the "s" is sounded, it is always written; and whenever there is doubt, it is well to follow the regular rule: as, "Horace's odes," "Charles's ball," "Dickens's David Copperfield."

In the PLURAL number, when the nominative plural ends in "s," the possessive case is formed by adding an apostrophe alone ('). If the nominative plural does not end in "s," an apostrophe and an "s" ('s) are both added, as in the singular: as, "Men's and boys' shoes."

The possessive case of COMPOUND nouns and expressions used as compound nouns is formed by adding the proper sign of the possessive to the end of the compound: as, "That is my sister-in-law's pony," "This is the Prince of Wales's palace."

[10] "Foundations," pp. 41-43.


1. Write the possessive case, singular and plural, of: Actor, king, fairy, calf, child, goose, lady, monkey, mouse, ox, woman, deer, eagle, princess, elephant, man, witness, prince, fox, farmer, countess, mouth, horse, day, year, lion, wolf, thief, Englishman.
2. Write the possessive case of: James, Dickens, his sister Mary, Miss Austen, the Prince of Wales, Frederick the Great, Harper and Brothers, father-in-law, Charles, Jones, William the Conqueror, Henry the Eighth, man-of-war, Douglas, Eggleston and Company.

Use and Misuse of the Possessive Case.[12]—It is sometimes a question whether to use the possessive form or the preposition of. "As a general rule, the possessive case should be confined to cases of possession."[13]

[11] TO THE TEACHER.—To have its full value this should be given as a dictation exercise.
[12] "Foundations," pp. 43-44.
[13] Ibid., p. 44.


Express relation between the words in the following pairs by putting one of them in the possessive case or by using the preposition "of," as may seem best:—

Charles the Second, reign; witness, testimony; horse, hoof; the President, public reception; Partridge, restaurant; aide-de-camp, horse; General Armistead, death; Henry the Eighth, wives; Napoleon, Berlin decree; teacher, advice; eagle, talons; enemy, repulse;[14] book, cover; princess, evening gowns; France, army; Napoleon, defeat; Napoleon, camp-chest; Major André, capture; Demosthenes, orations; gunpowder, invention; mountain, top; summer, end; Washington, sword; Franklin, staff; torrent, force; America, metropolis; city, streets; strike, beginning; church, spire; we (our, us), midst; year, events; Guiteau, trial; sea, bottom; Essex, death; Adams, administration; six months, wages; world, government.

[14] There is, properly, no "objective possessive" in English corresponding to the "objective genitive" in other languages. It seems best to say "The siege of Paris," rather than "Paris's siege."


Distinguish between the following:—
1. The President's reception. The reception of the President.
2. Mother's love. Love of mother.
3. A sister's care. Care of a sister.
4. A brother's picture. The picture of a brother.
5. Clive's reception in London. The reception of Clive in London.
6. Charles and Harry's toys. Charles's and Harry's toys.
7. Let me tell you a story of Doctor Brown (Brown's).


Correct the following, giving the reason for each correction:—
1. A dog and a cat's head are differently shaped.
2. Whose Greek grammar do you prefer—Goodwin or Hadley?
3. It is neither the captain nor the manager's duty.
4. I consulted Webster, Stormonth, and Worcester's dictionary.
5. I like Hawthorne better than Irving's style.
6. John, Henry and William's nose resembled one another.
7. The novel is one of Scott.
8. I have no time to listen to either John or Joseph's talk.

Singular and Plural.[15]—In modern English most nouns form the plural by adding "s" to the singular. The following variations from this rule are important:—

1. When the added sound of "s" makes an additional syllable, "es" is used: as, box, boxes; church, churches.
2. Nouns ending in "o." If the final "o" is preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed regularly, i.e., by adding "s": as, cameo, cameos. If the final "o" is preceded by a consonant, the tendency of modern usage is to form the plural by adding "es": as, hero, heroes; potato, potatoes. The following common words, however, seem still to form the plural by adding "s" alone:—

canto lasso proviso   torso
duodecimo   memento   quarto tyro
halo octavo solo  
junto piano stiletto  

3. Nouns ending in "y." If the "y" is preceded by a vowel, the plural is regular: as, valley, valleys.
If the "y" is preceded by a consonant, "y" is changed to "i" and "es" is added to form the plural: as, lady, ladies; city, cities.
4. Proper nouns are changed as little as possible: as, Henry, Henrys; Mary, Marys; Cicero, Ciceros; Nero, Neros.
5. Most compound nouns form the plural by adding the proper sign of the plural to the fundamental part of the word, i.e., to the part which is described by the rest of the phrase: as, ox-cart, ox-carts; court-martial, courts-martial; aide-de-camp, aides-de-camp.
Note the difference between the plural and the possessive of compound nouns,—forms which are often confounded. See page 16.
6. Letters, figures, and other symbols are made plural by adding an apostrophe and "s" ('s): as, "There are more e's than a's in this word"; "Dot your i's and cross your t's."
7. Some nouns have two plurals, which differ in meaning:—

Singular.   Plural.
brother brothers (by birth), brethren (of a society).
die dies (for coining or stamping), dice (for play).
fish fishes (separate fish), fish (collective).
index indexes (in books), indices (in algebra).
penny pennies (separate coins), pence (sum of money).
shot shots (discharges), shot (balls).
staff staves (poles), staffs (bodies of assistants).

[15] "Foundations," pp. 45-47.


Write the plural of: Lash, cage, race, buffalo, echo, canto, volcano, portfolio, ally, money, solo, memento, mosquito, bamboo, ditch, chimney, man, Norman,[17] Mussulman, city, negro, baby, calf, man-of-war, attorney, goose-quill, canon, quail, mystery, turkey, wife, body, snipe, knight-errant,[17] donkey, spoonful, aide-de-camp, Ottoman, commander-in-chief, major-general, pony, reply, talisman, court-martial, father-in-law, court-yard, man-trap, Brahman, journey, Henry, stepson, deer, mouthful, Miss Clark,[18] Mr. Jones, Dr. Brown, Dutchman, German, forget-me-not, poet-laureate, minister-plenipotentiary, hero, fish, trout, Mary, George, bill-of-fare.

[16] To THE TEACHER.—To have its full value this should be given as a dictation exercise.
[17] Consult a dictionary for this and similar nouns.
[18] Proper names preceded by a title are made plural by changing either the name or the title, and using "the" before the expression. We may say "the Miss Smiths" or "the Misses Smith," "the Doctors Young" or "the Doctor Youngs."


Distinguish between:—

1. Two dice (dies) were found in the prisoner's pockets.
2. He was always kind to his brothers (brethren).
3. How many shot (shots) did you count?
4. He carried two pailfuls (pails full) of water up the hill.
5. I have two handfuls (hands full) of gold-dust.
6. He gave the beggar six pennies (pence).
7. There are serious errors in the indexes (indices) in this new Algebra.
8. Ten shot (shots) were fired from the gun in fifteen minutes.


Which of the following forms should be used? Consult Hill's
"Foundations," pp. 45-47:

1. The members of the committee were greatly alarmed at this (these) news.
2. Tidings was (were) brought to them of the massacre on Snake River.
3. The endowment of the college was greatly increased by this (these) means.
4. The widow's means was (were) at first large, but it was (they were) soon exhausted by the prodigality of her son.
5. The assets of the company are (is) $167,000.
6. The dregs in the cup was (were) found to be very bitter.
7. The eaves of the new house are (is) thirty-two feet above the ground.
8. Athletics are (is) run into the ground in many schools.
9. Politics is (are) like a stone tied around the neck of literature.
10. The nuptials of Gratiano and Nerissa were (was) celebrated at the same time as those (that) of Bassanio and Portia.
11. Ethics are (is) becoming more and more prominent in the discussions of political economists.
12. Have you seen my pincers? I have mislaid it (them).
13. The proceeds was (were) given to the hospital.
14. His riches took to themselves (itself) wings.
15. This (these) scissors is (are) not sharp.
16. Please pour this (these) suds on the rose plants in the oval flowerbed.
17. His tactics was (were) much criticised by old generals.
18. The United States has (have) informed Spain that it (they) will not permit Spanish interference in the affairs of Central America.

Nouns of Foreign Origin.[19]—The following is a list of nouns of foreign origin in common use which have peculiar number forms:—

Singular. Plural.
alumnus (masculine) alumni
alumna (feminine) alumnæ
analysis analyses
bacterium bacteria
beau beaux
cherub cherubim (or cherubs)
crisis crises
curriculum curricula
datum data
genus (meaning "class")   genera
{ geniuses (persons of great ability)
genii (spirits)
hypothesis hypotheses
oasis oases
parenthesis parentheses
phenomenon phenomena
seraph seraphim (or seraphs)
stratum strata
tableau tableaux
thesis theses

[19] "Foundations," pp. 47-48.


1. Write the plural of: Alumna, analysis, beau, cherub, crisis, curriculum, genus, genius, hypothesis, nebula, oasis, parenthesis, phenomenon, synopsis, seraph, stratum, tableau.
2. Write the singular of: Alumni, curricula, data, bacteria, cherubim, oases, phenomena, seraphim, strata, theses.

Gender.—The following nouns of different genders are sometimes confounded or otherwise misused:—

Masculine. Feminine.
abbot abbess
actor actress
bachelor spinster, maid
buck doe (fallow deer)
bullock heifer
czar czarina
drake duck
duke duchess
earl countess
Francis Frances
gander goose
hero heroine
lion lioness
marquis, marquess   marchioness
monk nun
ram ewe
stag, hart hind (red deer)
sultan sultana
tiger tigress
wizard witch

[20] To THE TEACHER.—To have any value this must be given as a dictation exercise.


1. Write the feminine word corresponding to: Abbot, actor, bachelor, buck, bullock, czar, duke, drake, earl, Francis, hero, lion, marquis, monk, ram, stag, sultan, hart, tiger.
2. Write the masculine word corresponding to: Spinster, duck, doe, Frances, goose, heifer, ewe, hind, witch.

[21] TO THE TEACHER.—This should be used as a dictation exercise.


Correct the following sentences:

1. The marquess was the executor of her husband's estate.
2. He married a beautiful actor.
3. The tiger broke from its cage.
4. The duck was pluming his feathers after his swim, and the goose had wandered from his companions across the meadows.
5. The baby girl in "The Princess" may be called the real hero of the tale.

Abbreviations.—For the following exercise consult Hill's Foundations
of Rhetoric, pp. 49-50.


Which of these words are in good use?

Pianist, harpist, poloist, violinist, phiz, ad, co-ed, curios, exam, cab, chum, gent, hack, gym, pants, mob, phone, proxy, photo, prelim, van, prof, varsity.

Misused Nouns.[22]—Many errors in English consist in using words in senses which are not authorized. Sometimes the use of a word in a wrong sense makes the speaker's meaning obscure. Sometimes it makes him seem ridiculous, as when a person of the writer's acquaintance told a friend to clean an oil-painting by washing it in "torpid" water.In every case the misuse of a word leaves an unpleasant impression on the mind of a cultivated person, and, like all bad English, should be avoided as we avoid bad manners. In the following definitions and exercises a few nouns[23] are selected for study. The distinctions given are not always observed by reputable authors, but they indicate the tendency of the best modern usage.


House, home.—A house is a building. Home means one's habitual abode, "the abiding place of the affections." It may or may not be in a house, and it may include the surroundings of a house.

Person, party.—A person is an individual, a party is a company of persons, or, in legal usage, a person who is concerned in a contention or agreement.

Series, succession.—A series is a succession of similar things mutually related according to some law. Succession is properly used of several things following one after the other; it denotes order of occurrence only, and does not imply any connection.

Statement, assertion.—A statement is a formal setting forth of fact or opinion; an assertion is simply an affirmation of fact or opinion.

Verdict, testimony.—A verdict is a decision made by a number of men acting as a single body. Testimony is an expression of individual knowledge or belief.

The whole, all.The whole is properly used of something which is considered as one thing. When a number of persons or things are spoken of, the proper word is all.

[22] TO THE TEACHER.—It may not be desirable to drill pupils on all the words whose meanings are discriminated here and in chapters V. and VI. In that case it will be easy to select for study those words which the pupils are most likely to misuse. The words discriminated in this book are for the most part those which are mentioned in the "Foundations of Rhetoric," and they have been arranged in the same order. A few other words often misused by my pupils have been added.

[23] For misused verbs and adjectives see pages 92 and 119.
[24] "Foundations," pp. 50-53.


Tell the difference in meaning between the following:—
1. Mr. Roscoe has no house (home).
2. The hotel clerk says he expects three more parties (persons) on the six o'clock train.
3. There are three persons (parties) concerned in this contract.
4. A succession (series) of delays.
5. This morning's papers publish an assertion (a statement) by Mr. Pullman, which throws new light on the strike.


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your choice.—

House, home.
1. Whenever a tramp comes to our ——, the dog is untied.
2. His new —— will be finished in November.
3. Mr. S. owns a beautiful —— and has a happy ——.
4. One can build a very good —— for $6000.
5. ——s are built to live in, not to look on.

Party, person.
6. There is another —— coming on the evening train, but he will leave to-morrow.
7. A cross-looking —— alighted from the stage-coach and entered the inn.
8. The cause of both ——s shall come before the court.
9. Is the —— that wants a carriage at dinner or in his room?
10. He is attached to the king's ——.
11. Who was that fat old —— who kept us all laughing?

Series, succession.
12. The —— of Presidents is a long one.
13. This stamp belongs to the —— of 1864.
14. A —— of calamitous events followed this mistake in policy.
15. A —— of accidents prevented the sailing of the yacht.

Statement, assertion.
16. The last —— of the bank has been examined.
17. —— unsupported by fact is worthless.
18. The Declaration of Independence contained a clear —— of grievances.
19. The orator's —— was shown to be false.

Verdict, testimony.
20. The —— of history is that Christianity has improved the condition of women.
21. Let us await the —— of the public.
22. The early Christian martyrs sealed their —— with their blood.
23. The —— of those who saw the murder was contradictory.

The whole, all.
24. —— (of) the dishes came tumbling to the floor.
25. Tell —— (the) truth.
26. Then you and I and —— of us fell down.
27. Washington was respected by —— (the) people.
28. We sold —— (of) our apples at sixty cents a bushel.
29. He has already packed —— of his books.
30. —— (the) adornments took an appropriate and sylvan character.
31. He readily confided to her —— (the) papers concerning the intrigue.
32. In the afternoon —— of them got into a boat and rowed across the lake.


Acceptance, acceptation.Acceptance is the "act of accepting"; also "favorable reception": as, "The acceptance of a gift," "She sang with marked acceptance." Acceptation now means "the sense in which an expression is generally understood or accepted."

Access, accession.Access has several meanings authorized by good use: (1) outburst; (2) admission; (3) way of entrance. Accession means (1) the coming into possession of a right; or (2) an addition.

Acts, actions.—"Acts, in the sense of 'things done,' is preferable to actions, since actions also means 'processes of doing.'"[26]

Advance, advancement.Advance is used in speaking of something as moving forward; advancement, as being moved forward.

Allusion, illusion, delusion.—An allusion is an indirect reference to something not definitely mentioned. Roughly speaking, an illusion is an error of vision; delusion, of judgment. "In literary and popular use an illusion is an unreal appearance presented in any way to the bodily or the mental vision; it is often pleasing, harmless, or even useful.... A delusion is a mental error or deception, and may have regard to things actually existing, as well as to illusions. Delusions are ordinarily repulsive and discreditable, and may even be mischievous."[27]

Avocation, vocation.—"Vocation means 'calling' or 'profession'; avocation, 'something aside from one's regular calling, a by-work.'"[28]

Completion, completeness.Completion is "the act of completing"; completeness is "the state of being complete."

Observation, observance.Observation contains the idea of "looking at"; observance, of "keeping," "celebrating." "We speak of the observation of a fact, of a star; of the observance of a festival, of a rule."[29]

Proposal, proposition.—"A proposal is something proposed to be done, which may be accepted or rejected. A proposition is something proposed for discussion, with a view to determining the truth or wisdom of it."[30]

Relationship, relation.Relationship properly means "the state of being related by kindred or alliance": as, "A relationship existed between the two families." Relation is a word of much broader meaning. It does not necessarily imply kinship.

Solicitude, solicitation.Solicitude is "anxiety"; solicitation is "the act of soliciting or earnestly asking."

Stimulation, stimulus, stimulant.Stimulation is "the act of stimulating or inciting to action"; stimulus, originally "a goad," now denotes that which stimulates, the means by which one is incited to action; stimulant has a medical sense, being used of that which stimulates the body or any of its organs. We speak of ambition as a stimulus, of alcohol as a stimulant.

[25] "Foundations," pp. 53-56.
[26] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 18.
[27] The Century Dictionary.
[28] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[29] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[30] The Century Dictionary.


Tell the difference in meaning between

1. The acceptance (acceptation) of this word is doubtful.
2. The acts (actions) of Napoleon were carefully observed.
3. The colonel's advance (advancement) was not long delayed.
4. Literature has been Dr. Holmes's avocation (vocation).
5. The list of African dialects is approaching completeness (completion).
6. The completion (completeness) of this new dictionary of the Latin language will make scholars glad.
7. The professor advised me, when I went to Rome, to be especially careful in my observation (observance) of the religious ceremonies of Passion Week.
8. This proposal (proposition) made both Republican and Democratic senators indignant.
9. His mother's solicitude (solicitation) induced Washington when he was a boy to give up his intention of going to sea.
10. Shall I give your son a stimulus (stimulant)?


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your choice:—

Acceptance, acceptation.
1. The word "livery" is used in its original ——.
2. This is a true saying and worthy of ——.
3. The —— of a trust brings grave responsibility.
4. He sent to the President a formal —— of the position.
5. The assertion finds —— in every rank of society.
6. In its common —— "philosophy" signifies "the search after wisdom."
7. The probability of this theory justifies its full ——.

Access, accession.
8. We are denied —— to the king.
9. An —— of fever occurred at nightfall.
10. The emperor at his —— takes an oath to maintain the constitution.
11. —— to the outer court was through a massive door.
12. The only —— which the Roman Empire received was the province of Britain.
13. A sudden —— of violent, burning fever had laid Peter's mother-in-law prostrate.
14. Victoria married after her —— to the throne.
15. This allusion led to a fresh —— of feeling.

Act, action.
16. I cannot do so cruel an ——.
17. Another mode of —— was proposed by Henry Clay.
18. The fifth book of the New Testament records the ——s of the Apostles.
19. To attempt resistance would be the —— of a madman.
20. The monkey imitates the ——s of its master.

Advance, advancement.
21. The —— of the expedition was impeded by bad roads.
22. —— in the army is slow.
23. The Don and his companions, in their eager ——, had got entangled in deep glens.
24. My old position offered no hope of ——.
25. His hopes of —— in England failing, Swift returned to Ireland.

Allusion, illusion, delusion.
26. There were two ——s in his sermon to the riots.
27. The cleverest, acutest men are often under an (a) —— about women.
28. Longfellow's "Footsteps of Angels" contains ——s to the death of his wife.
29. Our judgment of people is liable to be warped by ——s of the imagination.
30. Those other words of —— and folly, Liberty first and Union afterward.

Avocation, vocation.
31. Surgeons in the army are allowed by the enemy to pursue their —— unmolested.
32. The young lawyer, surrounded by his law-books, took up his —— with enthusiasm.
33. Let your base-ball be a pastime, not a trade; let it be your ——, not your ——.
34. Heaven is a pious man's ——, and therefore he counts earthly employments ——s.
35. It seems that after his return, his disciples left him and returned to their ordinary ——s.

Completion, completeness.
36. The —— of the railroad was celebrated by a general illumination in the village.
37. The comfort of passengers is secured by the —— of the equipment of the steamers of this line.
38. We hope for the —— of our new building by September.
39. We were surprised at the —— of the collection of minerals.

Observation, observance.
40. The —— of a few simple rules of health would have prolonged his life.
41. The North American Indian has great powers of ——.
42. He insisted on the prompt —— of the regulations.
43. The Pharisees were strict in their —— of religious festivals.
44. He is arranging for a careful —— of the eclipse.

Proposal, proposition.
45. I submit two ——s for consideration by the assembly.
46. The —— that each of us relinquish something was accepted.
47. Sealed ——s for building the cottage were handed in by three contractors.
48. He made a —— of marriage to her.
49. I dissent from that ——.
50. A nation dedicated to the —— that all men are created equal.

Solicitude, solicitation.
51. He made frequent —— for money and clothes.
52. My mother watched over my infancy with tender ——.
53. Coriolanus yielded at the —— of his mother.

Stimulus, stimulant, stimulation.
54. He worked hard under the —— of a desire to get rich.
55. The providential —— of conscience is always present.
56. The doctor came and administered a gentle —— to the patient.


Ability, capacity.Ability is the power of doing; capacity, the power of containing, of understanding, of acquiring.

Adherence, adhesion.Adherence is used of moral relations, adhesion, of physical connection. We speak of the adhesion of glue to wood, of a man's adherence to the principles of his party.

Amount, quantity, number.Amount means "sum total," and is used of numbers or quantities; quantity is used of things which are measured; number, of things which are counted.

Argument, plea.—"Plea (in the legal sense) is properly used of the pleadings or the arraignment before a trial, not of the argument at a trial. A plea is always addressed to the court; an argument may be addressed either to the court or to the jury. A similar remark applies to the verbs plead and argue."[32]

Balance, rest, remainder.Balance, meaning "the difference between two sides of an account," is a commercial term, and cannot properly be used for rest or remainder. Rest is used of persons or things, and of large as well as of small parts. Remainder is used only of things, and denotes a comparatively small part.

Centre, middle.—The centre is a point, or a definite place; the middle is a line, or a space, and is less definite than centre.

Character, reputation.Character is what a man is; reputation is the prevailing opinion of his character.

Complement, compliment.—A complement is a "full quantity or number" or "that which is needed to complete"; a compliment is "an expression of praise."

Conscience, consciousness.Conscience is that within us which distinguishes right from wrong. Consciousness is the state of being aware of one's existence, thoughts, and surroundings.

Council, counsel.—A council is "a body of persons convened for consultation." Counsel denotes "advice," or "a person, as a lawyer, engaged to give advice."

Custom, habit.Custom denotes the frequent repetition of the same act, and may be used of a number of persons taken together. Habit is the effect of custom in a person. Custom is voluntary; habit is involuntary, often uncontrollable, sometimes unconscious.

Deception, deceit.Deception is "the act of deceiving"; deceit is "deceitfulness," a trait of character; or a "trick," an "artifice."

Egoists, egoism, egotism.—"The disciples of Descartes were egoists, the ego being the basis of their philosophy." Egoism is the name of their system. Egoism is sometimes used also in the sense of undue admiration of self, the outward expression of which is egotism. But "egotism, in the sense of 'self-worship,' is preferable to egoism, since egoism also designates a system of philosophy."[33]

Emigration, immigration.Emigration is the moving out from a country; immigration, the moving into it. Foreigners who come to live in America are emigrants from their fatherland, immigrants to America.

Enormity, enormousness.—"Enormity is used of deeds of unusual horror; enormousness, of things of unusual size. We speak of the enormity of Cæsar Borgia's crimes, of the enormousness of the Rothschilds' wealth."[34]

Esteem, estimate, estimation.Esteem as a noun seems to be going out of use; the word now commonly used in the sense of "opinion" or "regard" is estimation. An estimate is "an approximate judgment, based on considerations of probability, of the number, amount, magnitude, or position of anything."

Falsity, falseness.—"Falsity, in the sense of 'non-conformity to truth,' without any suggestion of blame, is preferable to falseness, since falseness usually implies blame."[35]

Identity, identification.Identity is "the state of being the same." Identification denotes "the act of determining what a given thing, or who a given person, is."

Import, importance.Import, in the sense of "meaning," must be distinguished from importance, "the quality of being important."

Invention, discovery.—We invent something new, contrived or produced for the first time. We discover what existed before, but remained unknown.

Limit, limitation.Limit, in the sense of "bound," is preferable to limitation, since limitation also means "the act of limiting," or a "restriction."

Lot, number.Lot denotes "a distinct part or parcel": as, "The auctioneer sold the goods in ten lots." The word does not mean "a great number"; therefore it is improperly used in the sentences: "He has lots of money," and "I know a lot of people in New York."

Majority, plurality.—A majority is more than half the whole number; a plurality is the excess of votes given for one candidate over those given for another, and is not necessarily a majority when there are more than two candidates.

Negligence, neglect.—"Negligence is used of a habit or trait; neglect, of an act or succession of acts."[36]

Novice, novitiate.Novice properly means one who is new in any business or calling; novitiate, the state or time of being a novice.

Organism, organization.—An organism is a "living body composed of a number of essential parts." Organization denotes "the act of organizing," or "an organized body of persons," as a literary society.

Part, portion.—"Part is the general word for that which is less than the whole: as, the whole is equal to the sum of all its parts.... Portion is often used in a stilted way where part would be simpler and better; portion has always some suggestion of allotment or assignment: as, this is my portion; a portion of Scripture. 'Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me.'"[37]

Plenty, abundance.—Plenty is enough; abundance, more than enough.

Produce, product, production.—Produce is always collective, and is used only of raw products: as, the produce of the soil, of the flock. Product denotes the result of some operation, usually physical labor. Production, meaning "the act of producing," is also applied to a work of literature or art, as a book, a statue, or a painting. "Product, in the sense of 'thing produced,' is preferable to production, since production is also used in an abstract sense."[38]

Prominence, predominance.—Prominence means "a standing out from something, so as to be conspicuous." Predominance denotes "ascendency," "a superiority in strength or influence," "an over-ruling." There may be many prominent traits in a person's character; there can be only one predominant trait.

Receipt, recipe.—"Receipt, in the sense of 'formula for a pudding, etc.,' is preferable to recipe, since recipe is commonly restricted to medical prescriptions."[38]

Relative, relation.—"Relative, in the sense of 'member of a family,' is preferable to relation, since relation is also used in an abstract sense."[38]

Requirement, requisite, requisition.—A requirement is something required by a person or persons. A requisite is something required by the nature of the case. A requisition is an authoritative demand or official request for a supply of something.

Resort, recourse, resource.—Resort denotes "the act of going to some person or thing"; or "that which is resorted to or habitually visited." Recourse means "resort for help or protection." Resource denotes "something which is a source of help or support."

Secreting, secretion.—Secreting is the act of hiding; secretion, a physiological process or fluid.

Sewage, sewerage.—Sewage means the contents, sewerage, the system, of sewers.

Situation, site.—"Situation embraces all the local aspects and relationships[39] in which a thing is placed. The site is confined to the ground on which it is erected or reposes."[40]

Speciality, specialty.—"Speciality, in the sense of 'distinctive quality,' is preferable to specialty, since specialty is also used in the sense of 'distinctive thing.'"[41]

Union, unity.Union is "the joining of two or more things into one." Unity means "oneness," "harmony."

Visitant, visitor.Visitant was formerly used to denote a supernatural being; visitor, a human one. Visitant seems now to be going out of use, visitor being used in both senses.

[31] "Foundations," p. 56. If it seem undesirable to drill pupils on all the words which are here discriminated, the teacher may select those words which they are most likely to misuse. See note 2, p. 22.

[32] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 40.
[33] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[34] Ibid., p. 38.
[35] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[36] Ibid., p. 39.
[37] The Century Dictionary.
[38] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[39] Is "relationships" the proper word here?
[40] Smith's Synonyms Discriminated.
[41] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


Tell the difference in meaning between
1. He is a person of great ability (capacity).
2. A good character (reputation) is a precious possession.
3. The man seemed to be without conscience (consciousness).
4. The counsel (council) was not wise.
5. It is John's custom (habit) to speak slowly.
6. Her deceit (deception) amazed me.
7. This man is an egoist (egotist).
8. The government does not encourage immigration (emigration).
9. In Mr. E.'s estimate (estimation) the cost of lumber and paint is low.
10. It was only yesterday that I heard of the identification (identity) of the men who robbed Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith.
11. Mr. Gladstone's remark at the banquet was an utterance of great import (importance).
12. This is a remarkable discovery (invention).
13. Calhoun was nominated by a majority (plurality).
14. His death was caused by his own neglect (negligence).
15. The privileges of a novice (novitiate) are not many.
16. What a queer organism (organization)!
17. The expedition has plenty (an abundance) of provisions.
18. He proposes to lay a tax on all English produce (products, productions).
19. He quickly attained prominence (predominance) in the committee.
20. Please copy this receipt (recipe).
21. My relatives (relations) here are charming.
22. Wanted, a boy to do light work in a first-class store. Ability to read and write is a requirement (requisite).
23. The sewage (sewerage) of inland cities presents problems of great difficulty.
24. The site (situation) of the temple is not known.
25. Unity (union) of religious denominations is hoped for by many.


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your choice:—

Ability, capacity.
1. The —— of the room is not great.
2. They gave, each according to his ——.
3. What is —— but the power of doing a thing?
4. Let me drink of Thee according to my ——. (From a prayer.)
5. Some students do not have —— to master Greek; but what most need is —— to work persistently.
6. My father does not think Judge X. has much—as a lawyer.

Adherence, adhesion.
7. The —— of the parts which were cemented together is still perfect.
8. He showed an obstinate —— to false rules of conduct.
9. Marks on the blackboard depend on the —— of chalk to the slate.
10. Professor A.'s —— to the doctrines of Adam Smith is seen in his last book.

Amount, number, quantity.
11. Our monthly expenditures vary in ——.
12. You could see any —— of cabs standing in front of the theatre.
13. A great —— of books and papers covered the table.
14. Gulliver asked the king of Lilliput for a large —— of iron bars and a considerable —— of rope.
15. What —— of paper is needed for one issue of Harper's Weekly?
16. Such a (an) —— of sheep as we saw to-day!
17. There is a large —— of silver bullion in the Treasury waiting to be coined.

Argument, plea.
18. Every whisper in the court-room was hushed as Mr. N. rose before the jury and began his—in behalf of the prisoner.
19. The —— of Smith, when arraigned before the court, was that he had acted in self-defence.

20. The only —— available with an east wind is to put on your overcoat.

Balance, remainder, rest.
21. The —— of the hour is spent in the study of some poem.
22. I have a —— at my banker's.
23. The —— of the boys went home.
24. For the —— of the week we stayed at home.
25. The account shows a —— of $12.46.
26. Give John and Horace four of the six apples; you may have the ——.
27. Give the —— of our dinner to Tommy, our cat.

Centre, middle.
28. There is a crack running down the —— of the wall.
29. A table stood in the —— of the room.
30. A path runs through the —— of the park.
31. In the —— of the garden was a fountain.
32. He parts his hair in the ——.
33. The arrow struck the —— of the target.

Character, reputation.
34. This man has an excellent —— for honesty.
35. Every one admires the —— of Washington.
36. Mr. Arnold won great —— as a critic.
37. Oh, I have lost my ——.
38. The outlaws of Yorkshire were men of loose ——.
39. A distinguished general may lose his —— through a single blunder.
40. —— is an idle and most false imposition; oft got without merit,
and lost without deserving.

Complement, compliment.
41. Present my ——s to your father.
42. The ship has its —— of stores.
43. The —— of an angle is the difference between the angle and a right angle.
44. "True friendship loathes such oily ——."
45. In the sentence, "He is ill," "ill" is the —— of the verb "is."
46. "This barren verbiage, current among men, Light coin, the tinsel clink of ——."

Conscience, consciousness.
47. The —— of the purity of his motives consoled him for his unpopularity.
48. My —— hath a thousand several tongues.
49. I felt a shock, I saw the car topple over, and then I lost ——.

Council, counsel.
50. "No man will take ——, but every man will take money; therefore money is better than ——."—Swift.
51. The members of the cabinet form a sort of secret —— of the President.
52. Webster was one of the —— in the trial of the Knapps for the murder of Captain White.

Custom, habit.
53. De Quincey acquired the —— of using opium from first using it to relieve neuralgic pains.
54. Dancing round a May-pole is a —— many hundreds of years old.
55. As his —— was, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath.
56. Man is a bundle of ——s.
57. Those national ——s are best which lead to good ——s among the people.
58. A loose life brings a man into ——s of dissipation.
59. It was the —— of Scotch Highlanders to go bareheaded.
60. It is a good —— to rise early, because this will soon become a ——.

Deception, deceit.
61. He was guilty of a long course of ——.
62. Her character would be charming if it were not for her ——.
63. He won my confidence by base ——.
64. Deceivers seldom profit by their ——.
65. —— Is of the very nature and essence of sin.

Egotist, egoist.
66. He is an ——, for he is always talking about himself.
67. ——s are the pest of society; they are always obtruding their ailments on others.

Emigration, immigration.
68. The increase in Chinese —— is a matter for serious consideration by the United States Senate.
69. The Chinese government encourages —— to America.
70. —— is one cause of the rapid growth of our population.
71. The —— of the French nobility at the time of the French Revolution was a political blunder.

Enormity, enormousness.
72. The —— of the cost of the civil war startles the student of history.
73. Burke drew such a vivid picture of the —— of the Nabob of Arcot's crimes that ladies in the audience fainted.
74. Visitors do not at first realize the —— of St. Peter's, at Rome.

Esteem, estimate, estimation.
75. In what —— is he held by his townsmen?
76. In my —— she is the best of women.
77. We can form an —— of the amount of water in the air.

Falseness, falsity.
78. We have already seen the —— of that hypothesis.
79. Arnold was despised for his ——.
80. Piety is opposed to hypocrisy and ——.
81. The prince is in danger of betrayal through the —— of his servant.
82. The —— of this reasoning is evident.

Identity, identification.
83. The bodies were so disfigured that their —— was difficult.
84. In no form of government is there absolute —— of interest between the people and their rulers.

Import, importance.
85. He heard the tolling of the bell and trembled at its ——.
86. The oath of the President contains three words, all of equal ——; namely, that he will "preserve, protect, and defend" the Constitution.
87. He was engaged in business of the highest ——.
88. You misunderstood the —— of my remarks.

Invention, discovery.
89. Newton's —— of the law of gravitation.
90. The —— of the telescope was made by Galileo.
91. The —— of the properties of the magnetic needle is said to have been made by the Chinese; also, the —— of gunpowder.
92. The —— of the circulation of blood was made by Harvey.
93. The steam-engine is one of the greatest ——s of this age.
94. The —— of the telephone is claimed by several persons.

Limit, limitation.
95. All kinds of knowledge have their ——s.
96. Titus Quintius was appointed to the command of the army without any ——s.
97. Athens insisted upon —— of the right to vote.
98. The prisoners were free to roam within certain ——s, but their employments were subject to ——.

Majority, plurality.
99. If A has 21 votes, B 18, and C 10, A is elected by a ——, not a ——.
100. Smith had 37 of the 52 votes, a good ——.
101. Jones had 20 votes, Smith 14, and Brown 11; Jones therefore was elected by a safe ——.

Negligence, neglect.
102. "Without blame
Or our —— we lost her as we came."—Comus.
103. Through —— to do what ought to be done we soon acquire habits of ——.
104. Rescue my poor remains from vile ——.
105. The gate has fallen from its hinges, the wooden steps are rotted, and the house shows similar signs of ——.
106. —— is a grave fault.

Novice, novitiate.
107. For most men a —— of silence is profitable before they enter on the business of life.
108. I am young, a —— in the trade.
109. It was in this abbey that I served my ——.
110. When I was a —— in this place, there was here a pious monk.

Organism, organization.
111. Germs of microscopic ——s exist abundantly on the surface of all fruits.
112. Lieutenant Peary has completed the —— of his arctic expedition.
113. The Jacobin club was a political ——.
114. What a complex —— the human body is!

Part, portion.
115. A —— of my work is done.
116. The younger —— of the community.
117. The priests had a —— of land assigned them by Pharaoh.
118. The whole is equal to the sum of all its ——s.
119. Each received his —— of the estate.
120. The lower ——s of his body were cold.
121. "This," said he, "is a —— of the true cross."

Plenty, abundance.
122. If you do not waste your money, you will have —— for your expenses.
123. They did cast in of their ——; but she of her want.
124. The expedition has —— of provisions, but none to spare.
125. Last year there was —— of corn; it was estimated that we had enough to feed the whole nation for two years.

Produce, product, production.
126. The manufacturers brought their ——s to market.
127. The farmers bring their —— to town or haul it to the nearest railway station.
128. The apple is especially an American ——.
129. Lowell's "Commemoration Ode" is a noble ——.
130. Great Britain exports chiefly manufactured ——.
131. The component elements of —— are labor and capital.

Prominence, predominance.
132. The Indian race is marked by a —— of the cheek-bones.
133. The English settlers were prominent (predominant) in the New World.
134. "Childe Harold" brought Byron into —— as a poet.
135. As a man Byron had many prominent (predominant) faults; it is not easy to say which one was prominent (predominant).

Recipe, receipt.
136. Please send me your —— for making chocolate ice-cream.
137. Paracelsus furnished a —— for making a fairy, but had the delicacy to refrain from using it.
138. He gave me a —— for a liniment, which he said was excellent for sprains.

Relative, relation.
139. He has no —— in this part of the country.
140. I am the nearest —— he has in the world.

Requirement, requisition, requisite.
141. One of the ——s in a great commander is coolness.
142. The ——s for admission to college vary.
143. One of the ——s in a United States minister to France is that he be wealthy, for the salary paid is insufficient to defray the expenses of the minister's social obligations.
144. That locomotive engineers be not color-blind is a just ——.
145. The wars of Napoleon were marked by the enormous ——s which were made on invaded countries.

Resort, Resource, Recourse.
146. The woods were her favorite—.
147. The United States has unlimited—s.
148. Asheville has long been a—of wealthy society people.
149. When women engage in any art or trade, it is usually as a last ——.
150. General Lee had—to stratagem.

Secretion, secreting.
151. Jailers are watchful to prevent the —— of poison in letters sent to condemned prisoners.
153. Saliva is a ——.

Sewage, sewerage.
153. The water of rivers that have received —— is not good to drink.
154. The vast and intricate —— of Paris is described by Victor Hugo in "Les Miserables."

Situation, site.
155. The —— of Samaria is far more beautiful than the —— of Jerusalem, though not so grand and wild.
156. Dr. Schliemann made excavations to discover the —— of Troy.
157. Our school buildings have a fine ——.
158. Has the —— of Professor Richard's house been fixed?
159. One of Nebuchadnezzar's temples is thought to have stood on the —— of the Tower of Babel.

Specialty, speciality.
160. It is the —— of vice that it is selfishly indifferent to the injurious consequences of actions.
161. Diseases of the throat are Dr. Hall's ——.
162. Fountain-pens a ——.
163. "Toughness" is the —— of Salisbury iron; therefore Salisbury iron is much in demand for car-wheels.

Union, unity.
164. How good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in ——.
165. The —— of soul and body is ended by death.
166. In the temper of Lord Bacon there was a singular —— of audacity and sobriety.
167. This composition lacks ——; the writer treats of several distinct subjects.


Tell why the italicized words in the following sentences are misused,
and substitute for them better expressions:

1. The West End Railway Company is the factor[42] which can remedy all this.
2. Addison's "Cato" was a success.
3. Decoration Day is a fitting observance of those who gave their lives for their country.
4. At the end of each day the teams[43] are so broken up that they have to go into the repair-shop, where the carpenter and blacksmith are able to fix any part of them.
5. The majority of the news is unfavorable.
6. Search-lights would be an indispensable factor in a night attack.
7. Bishop Hatto lived in a country where all the productions were spoiled by the weather.
8. The whole of the stupid boys in Germany struggle to pass this test.
9. The police are looking for the guilty parties.
10. A lot of men from the country came to town to see the circus.
11. In the shed is a mixture[44] of oars, seats, sails, rudders, booms, and gaffs.
12. They had to take the balance of his arm off.
13. Addison's essays were a great factor in improving the morals of his age.
14. General Manager Payson Tucker at once sent detectives to the scene, and every effort will be made to secure the guilty parties.
15. For a few days Coxey's army was a success as a show.
16. If it were not for him and a few others of his ilk the matter would have been settled long ago.

[42] "Foundations," p. 51.
[43] Ibid., p. 52.
[44] Consult a good dictionary.


Illustrate by original sentences the correct use of these words:

Home, party, series, statement, verdict, acceptation, actions, advance, advancement, avocation, completion, allusion, illusion, observation, observance, proposal, proposition, solicitude, solicitation, stimulus, stimulant, capacity, adherence, adhesion, amount, quantity, number, centre, middle, character, complement, compliment, conscience, consciousness, council, counsel, custom, habit, deception, deceit, egoist, emigration, immigration, enormity, enormousness, esteem, estimate, falsity, falseness, import, invention, discovery, limitation, majority, plurality, negligence, neglect, novitiate, organization, organism, produce, product, production, prominence, predominance, recipe, requirement, requisition, requisite, resort, resource, secretion, sewage, sewerage, situation, site, speciality, specialty, union, unity.

[45] TO THE TEACHER.—It is easy to underestimate the difficulty which this exercise presents to pupils. In assigning the lesson care must be taken not to call for more of this kind of work than can be done well. Constructing a sentence to illustrate the correct use of a word is a valuable exercise, but it is a difficult one; and persons who know the correct use of a word may be put to their wit's end to illustrate that use. It will be well to assign this exercise little by little, while the class works through the definitions and exercises on pages 23-41; or else to select from the list the words on which the class needs most drill. With some pupils it may be wise to omit the exercise entirely.



Possessive forms.[46]—No apostrophe is used in forming the possessive
case of personal pronouns. We write "ours," "yours," "hers," "its,"
"theirs." "It's" is a contraction for "it is."

[46] "Foundations," p. 60.


Write from dictation
1. John's hat is old, yours is new.
2. The bear was lying on its side, dead.
3. The Browns' house is larger than ours, but ours is more convenient thantheirs.
4. Yours very respectfully, John Smith.
5. See the yacht! it's coining into the harbor under full sail.
6. Show Mary your doll; it should not grieve you that yours is not sopretty as hers.
7. That fault was not yours.
8. Helen's eyes followed the direction of hers.

Nominative or Objective Case.[47]—There are only seven words in the English language that now have different forms for the nominative and objective cases; therefore it is only in the use of these words that we need to observe any rules about "nominative" or "objective." Since, however, these seven words are more frequently used than any other words, the possibilities of error in choosing between the nominative and the objective are many. Mistakes of this kind are common, and produce a very unpleasant effect on cultivated people. The seven words that have different forms for the nominative and objective cases are the following pronouns[48]:—

Nominative.   Objective.
I me
we us
thou thee
he him
she her
they them
who whom

It is taken for granted that the student has already learned the following
principles of syntax:—
1. Words used absolutely and the subjects of finite verbs should in English be put in the NOMINATIVE form.
2. The subjects of infinitives and the objects of verbs and prepositions should be in the OBJECTIVE form.
3. Words in apposition should be in the same case.
4. The verb "to be," or any of its forms (am, is, are, were, etc.), does not take an object, but, being equivalent in meaning to the symbol "=," takes the same case after it as before it: the nominative, if the form is "finite"; the objective, if the form is "infinitive" and has a subject of its own. "I know it is he," "I know it to be him," and "The stranger is thought to be he" are grammatically correct.

Sentences like "She invited Mrs. R. and I to go driving" are common, even among people generally well-informed. Such mistakes will be avoided if the speaker stops to think what the form would be if the pronoun were not coupled with a noun. No one would think of saying, "She invited I to go driving."

Persons who are in doubt as to which form of the pronoun to use often try to avoid the difficulty by using one of the pronouns ending in "-self"—pronouns which have the same form for both the nominative and the objective case. Thus many persons, uncertain whether to use "I" or "me" in the sentence quoted above, would say instead, "She invited Mrs. R. and myself to go driving." This is no better than "Mrs. R. and I," or "her and I." The pronouns in "-self" are properly used only for emphasis or in a reflexive sense.[49] It is right to say: "I will go myself"; "Carrie herself went to the door "; "God helps those who help themselves." It would be wrong to say, "Harry and myself have bought a horse together."

When a pronoun in "-self" is used reflexively, it refers to the subject of the clause in which it stands.

In sentences like "This advice is free to whoever will take it," the word ending in "-ever" is the subject of the verb "will take," not the object of the preposition "to." The right form, therefore, is "whoever," not "whomever." The object or, better, the "base" of the preposition "to" is the whole clause, "whoever will take it."

[47] Ibid., pp. 61-62.
[48] I omit ye, you, because they are used interchangeably. I omit also
compounds of who, whom.
[49] "Foundations," p. 64.


Insert the proper form of pronoun in each blank, and give the reason for your choice:—


I, me, myself.
1. Taking a carriage, my brother and —— drove to the east end of Cape Elizabeth.
2. Mr. C. and —— walked around the lake by moonlight.
3. The walk gave pleasure to both Mr. C. and ——.
4. Between you and ——, affairs look dark.
5. The Star contains a paper on "Our Streets," which was written by ——. >
6. He is taller than ——.[50]
7. There is, you remember, an old agreement between you and ——
8. May John and —— go to the ball-game?
9. Please let John and —— go to the ball-game.
10. They met Robert and —— in the village.
11. Who is there? Only ——.
a whole year, too, ——, who had never been away from home, was not easy for mother.
13. Will you let Brown and —— have your boat?
14. Dr. Holmes shook hands with the girls, —— among the rest.
15. Next month my brother and —— are going to Bar Harbor.
16. It was —— who called to you.
17. I was beside ——.
18. Would you go, if you were ——?
19. Father bought brother and —— tickets for the concert.
20. He said he would bring some flowers to Frances and ——.
21. You suffer from headache more than ——.
22. We shall soon see which is the better boxer, you or ——.
23. Who rang the bell? ——
24. The taller man was supposed to be ——.
25. Every one has gone except you and ——.
26. The world will rest content with such poor things as you and ——.
27. He was a sublimer poet than ——.
28. Was it —— that you saw?
29. How can you thus address me, ——, who am your friend?
30. Let you and —— go for berries alone, if he will not go with us.
31. There is no one here but you and ——.
32. Is it —— you wish to see?
33. He said that you and —— might ao.
34. Oh, no; it couldn't have been ——.
35. Harry left word for you and —— to come to his room.
36. Other girls have books as well as ——.
37. Its being —— should make no difference.
38. Young Macdonald and —— went to New York last Thursday.
39. She knew it to be —— by my gait.

[50] In sentences like this the correct form will become evident if the speaker mentally completes the sentence thus: He is taller than —— am. The greater part of the clause after "than" or "as" is generally omitted.


We, us, ourselves.
1. Our friends and —— are going out to-night.
2. He has come to take our friends and —— driving.
3. They are wiser than ——, since they are older.
4. They will lose more than —— by the failure of the bank.
5. The Germans are better plodders than ——.
6. It may have been —— who (whom) you saw.
7. —— boys are having a fine time.
8. Have you seen the picture of —— three girls in a boat, taken by Mr. B.?
9. There are five hundred miles between father and ——.
10. They know that as well as ——.
11. They don't succeed any better than ——.
12. They as well as —— were disappointed.
13. —— ought not to get angry when others criticise —— for faults which —— freely acknowledge.
14. "It is not fit for such as ——
To sit with rulers of the land."


Thou, thee, thyself.
1. I will not learn my duty from such as ——.
2. If they rob only such as ——, I hold them right honest folk.
3. Love —— last.
4. "The nations not so blest as ——
Must in their turn to tyrants fall."
5. "Wife, dost —— know that all the world seems queer except —— and me; and sometimes I think even —— art a little queer?"
6. "Hail to ——, blithe spirit;
Bird —— never wert."


He, him, himself.
1. There is a difference between an employer and —— who (whom) he employs.
2. John —— wrote that letter.
3. You are nearly as tall as ——.
4. All wore dress suits except Charles and ——.
5. I know that it was ——.
6. I knew it to be ——.
7. —— being young, they tried to deceive him.
8. It was either —— or his brother that called.
9. What were you and —— talking about?
10. I can run as fast as ——.
11. —— who had always protected her, she now saw dead at her feet.
12. —— and his father are in business together.
13. She is as good as ——.
14. I should never have imagined it to be ——.
15. Boys like you and —— are expected to do what is right without being told.
16. Yes, I told them what you said, —— among the rest.
17. I did as well as ——.
18. It was Joseph, —— whom Pharaoh made prime-minister.
19. Let —— who made thee answer that.
20. Whom can I trust, if not ——?


She, her, herself.
1. Before leaving Mary we saw —— and her baggage safe on the train.
2. —— and her two cousins have been visiting us.
3. I would not go to town alone, if I were ——.
4. It was not —— but her sister that you met yesterday.
5. You are as old as ——.
6. —— and I are not in the same class.
7. Was it —— that did it?
8. I cannot let you and —— sit together.
9. You play the violin better than ——.
10. Such girls as —— are not good companions.
11. I am certain that it was ——.
12. Girls like —— are not good company.
13. If any one is embarrassed, it will not be ——.
14. If any one is late it will be sure to be ——.


They, them, themselves.
1. —— and their children have left town.
2. We shall soon be as poor as ——.
3. Yes, it was ——.
4. I do not know whether the Macdonalds are Scotch or Irish but I thought the Scotch family alluded to might be ——.
5. The mischievous boys you speak of could not have been —— for —— were at home.


Who, whom, whoever, whomever.
1. —— are you going to give that to?
2. —— do men say that I am?
3. —— do men think me to be?
4. —— am I supposed to be?
5. —— do you think will be elected?
6. —— do you think they will select?
7. I do not know —— to compare him to.
8. Tell me in sadness —— is she you love?
9. —— are you going to call on next?
10. How can we tell —— to trust?
11. —— is that for?
12. Elect —— you like.
13. —— did you see at the village?
14. —— did you say went with you?
15. Do you know —— you can get to take my trunk?
16. —— were you talking to just now?
17. I do not know —— you mean.
18. Do you remember —— he married?
19. We will refer the question to —— you may select as arbitrator.
20. —— can this letter be from?
21. He is a man —— I know is honest.[51]
22. He is a man —— I know to be honest.[51]
23. —— do you take me to be?
24. —— did you expect to see?
25. Can't you remember —— you gave it to?
26. I saw a man —— I have no hesitation in saying was Julian H.
27. We like to be with those —— we love and —— we know love us, let them be —— they may.
28. —— do you think it was that called?
29. He confided his plan to those —— he thought were his friends.
30. He confided his plan to those —— he thought he could trust.
31. We recommend only those —— we think can pass the examinations, and —— we know will do their best.
32. —— do you think she looks like?
33. One letter was from an applicant —— I afterwards learned had been out of a position for two years.
34. —— did you suppose it was?
35. Opposite him was a handsome man—John knew must be Kathleen's uncle.
36. A witness —— the counsel for the defence expected would be present was kept away by illness.
37. A witness —— the counsel expected to be present was kept away.
38. Give it to —— seems to need it most.
39. —— does he think it could have been?
40. They have found the child —— they thought was stolen.
41. Mr. Morton, ——, it is announced, the President has appointed minister to France, has a house at Saratoga.
42. Miss C. married an old gentleman —— they say is very wealthy.
43. The king offered to give his daughter in marriage to —— would kill the terrible monster.
44. —— do you think I saw in Paris?
45. —— are you going to vote for?
46. They left me ignorant as to —— it was.
47. We were betrayed by those —— we thought would die for us.
48. I don't know —— to ask for.
49. I know —— it is I serve.
50. The President has appointed Mr. L., —— he thinks will show himself well fitted for the position.
51. One member of the committee was absent ——, it was asserted by the minority, would have voted in the negative.
52. The officer addressed the woman, —— he plainly saw to be very much out of place there.
53. —— did he refer to, he (him) or I (me)?
54. Ariel was a spirit —— a certain witch had shut up in a tree.
55. If she did not take after Anne, —— did she take after?

Pronouns before Verbal Nouns.[52]—Grammarians distinguish three kinds
of words formed from verbs by the adding of "-ing."

1. "We found Katharine singing a merry song." In this sentence "singing"—equivalent to "who was singing"—describes Katharine, and is therefore used as an adjective; but it also partakes of the nature of a verb, for it has a direct object, "song." Such words, partaking of the nature of both adjective and verb, are called PARTICIPLES.
2. "Blithely singing pretty songs keeps one's spirits up."

Here "singing" is a noun, the subject of the sentence; yet it has a direct object, "songs," and is modified by the adverb "blithely." Such words, partaking of the nature of both noun and verb, are called GERUNDS.

A noun or a pronoun used before a gerund to denote the subject of the action should be put in the possessive case. The reason for this becomes evident if, in the sentence "Do you remember Katharine (Katharine's) singing?" we substitute for the noun "singing" another noun, "song;" thus, "Do you remember Katharine (Katharine's) song?" The direct object of "remember" is "singing," which is described by the possessive "Katharine's."

3. "Katharine's blithe singing of merry songs helps to make home happy." Here, too, "singing" is a noun; but now its verbal character has disappeared, for it is modified by an adjective "blithe," and instead of a direct object we have the prepositional phrase "of merry songs." Such words derived from verbs are ABSTRACT VERBAL NOUNS.

When a word in "-ing" is modified by "the" or some other adjective, it is an abstract verbal noun, and cannot have an object. Conversely, if it, is followed by "of" and a noun instead of by a direct object, it should be modified by "the" or some other adjective.

[51] In the first of these sentences the pronoun to be supplied is the subject of "is honest," and "I know" is parenthetical. In the second sentence, the pronoun to be supplied is the subject of "to be honest," which is the complement of "I know." [52] "Foundations," pp. 62-64.


Which of the following forms is preferable? Give the reason:

1. I heard of him (his) coming home.
2. What do you think of Marguerite (Marguerite's) studying Latin?
3. Have you any doubt of Kathleen (Kathleen's) being happy?
4. We saw the lady (lady's) crossing the street.
5. Do you remember my (me) speaking to you about your penmanship?
6. We saw the old miser (miser's) sitting alone in front of his hut.
7. What is the good of your (you) going now?
8. There was no doubt of him (his) being promoted.
9. Trust to me (my) being on time.
10. Are you surprised at it (its) being him (he)?
11. No doubt his example will be followed by others, with the consequence of the country (country's) being overrun by tramps.
12. Look at him (his) reading a book.
13. The delay was caused by us (our) missing the train.
14. I found him (his) reading Idyls of the King.
15. This may lead to Harry (Harry's) getting a position.
16. We did not see the house (house's) burning.
17. You (your) writing the letter so neatly secured for you the position.
18. The man's (man) breaking jail is evidence of his guilt.
19. What do you think about this cloth (cloth's) wearing well?
20. We must insist upon every man (man's) doing his duty.
21. Mr. R.'s (Mr. R.) having come to town will soon be known.
22. There is prospect of the Senate (Senate's) passing the tariff bill.
23. What use is there in a man (man's) swearing?
24. His parents are opposed to him (his) playing football.
25. No one ever saw fat men (men's) heading a riot.
26. A fierce struggle ensued, ending in the intruder (intruder's) being worsted.
27. Professor C. relies on us (our) passing our examinations.
28. I felt my heart (heart's) beating faster.
29. There is no use in me (my) trying to learn Hebrew.
30. I enjoy nothing more than the sight of a yacht (yacht's) sailing in a stiff breeze.
31. Brown (Brown's) being a manufacturer prevented his election.


Distinguish in meaning between the following sentences:

1. The man (man's) asking to be allowed to vote started a quarrel.
2. Did you see him (his) riding?
3. I had to laugh at John (John's) riding a bicycle.
4. Think of me (my) eating frogs' legs.
5. Much depends on the teacher (teacher's) correcting the papers.
6. Did you watch him (his) entering the room?
7. Did you hear Ruth (Ruth's) singing?
8. No one ever heard of that man (man's) running for office.


Explain the faults in the following sentences and correct them in several

1. He read the parable about the sowing the seed.
2. Good writing depends on reading of good books.
3. Youth is the time for the forming the character.
4. "In building of chaises, I tell you what, There is always somewhere a weakest spot."
5. He would not aid me so much as by the lifting a hand.
6. Groaning of prisoners and clanking of chains were heard.
7. By the obtaining wisdom you will command esteem.
8. By reading of good books his style was improved.
9. The taking things by force is apt to make trouble.
10. A more careful guarding the prisoners would have prevented this accident.

Choice of Relative Pronouns.[53]Who is now used only of persons; which, of things; that, of either persons or things. As a rule, euphony decides between who or which and that.

"Who is used chiefly of persons (though also often of the higher animals), which almost only of animals and things (in old English also of persons), and that indifferently of either, except after a preposition, where only who [whom] or which can stand. Some recent authorities teach that only that should be used when the relative clause is limiting or defining: as, the man that runs fastest wins the race; but who or which when it is descriptive or co-ordinating: as, this man, who ran fastest, won the race; but, though present usage is perhaps tending in the direction of such a distinction, it neither has been nor is a rule of English speech, nor is it likely to become one, especially on account of the impossibility of setting that after a preposition; for to turn all relative clauses into the form 'the house that Jack lived in' (instead of 'the house in which Jack lived') would be intolerable. In good punctuation the defining relative is distinguished (as in the examples above) by never taking a comma before it, whether it be who or which or that. Wherever that could be properly used, but only there, the relative may be, and very often is, omitted altogether; thus, the house Jack built or lived in; the man he built it for."[54]

When the antecedent includes both persons and things, that is preferable to who or which.

"When the antecedent is a neuter noun not personified, a writer should prefer of which to whose, unless euphony requires the latter."[55]

What, as a relative pronoun, is equivalent to "that which." It is never used with an antecedent, since the antecedent is included in the meaning of the word.

The word as is a relative pronoun only after "such" or "same." After "such" the proper relative is "as"; after "same" it is "as" or "that." "Same as usually expresses identity of kind, same that absolute identity, except in contracted sentences where same as is alone found:
cf. 'he uses the same books as you do,' 'he uses the same books that you do,' he uses the same books as you.'"[56]

[53] "Foundations," pp. 60, 65, 67-69.
[54] The Century Dictionary.
[55] "Foundations," p. 68.
[56] Murray's Dictionary.


Insert the proper relative pronoun in the blanks in the following sentences, giving the reason for your choice:—

1. Man is the only animal —— can talk.
2. There are many persons ——, though they be starving, will not beg.
3. This is the malt —— lay in the house —— Jack built.
4. I will have no such son-in-law —— thinks himself better than I (me).[57]
5. Tennyson, —— was the foremost poet of England, died in 1892.
6. Time —— is lost is never found again.
7. There are many —— saw him fall.
8. The soldiers and cannon —— you saw belong to the French army.
9. Who —— hears Professor C. read the court scene from "Pick wick" does not go away delighted?
10. She is the same girl since her marriage —— she was before it.
11. The dog dropped the bone, —— then fell into the water.
12. He —— does all —— he can does all —— can be expected.
13. Her hair, —— was dark brown, was gathered in a Grecian knot.
14. Tears, such —— angels weep, burst forth.
15. I have a water spaniel, —— follows me everywhere.
16. The horse —— ran away with Harry belonged to Mr. H.
17. Such —— I have I give you.
18. This is the same man —— I spoke of.
19. The diamond, —— is so highly prized, is pure carbon, —— in the form of charcoal is familiar to all.
20. All the men and horses —— were on the transports were drowned when the vessels sank.
21. The murdered innocents at Bethlehem were martyrs —— died for a king —— they had never seen.
22. What pleased me most, and —— has been most frequently mentioned by visitors to the fair, was the beauty of the buildings.
23. I trusted to my dog, —— knew the way better than I did.
24. Dr. A.'s report shows the same record of efficiency —— has always characterized his conduct.
25. Shakespeare was the greatest poet —— the English race has produced.
26. He spends all —— he earns.
27. The review of the National Guard of Pennsylvania by Sheridan was the largest military display —— I have seen.
28. Was it you or the wind —— made those noises?
29. We have invited the same girls —— were here yesterday.
30. It was the cat, not I or the wind, —— frightened you.
31. The dog —— my brother gave me ran away.
32. Do you know that man —— is just entering the car?
33. Such eloquence —— was heard in the Senate in those days!
34. He held the same political opinions —— his illustrious friend.
35.    "Nature ever faithful is
      To such —— trust her faithfulness."
36. Is this a dagger —— I see before me?
37. We saw the men and arms —— were captured.

Either or Any one, Neither or No one.[58]Either means "one of the two"; neither, "no one of the two." When more than two persons or things are spoken of, "any one" is preferable to "either," and "no one" to "neither."

[57] See note, p. 45.
[58] "Foundations," pp. 69-70.


Insert the proper word or words ("either," "neither," "any one," "no
one") in each blank in the following sentences:—

1. Only three persons saw the fight, and —— of them would testify.
2. Has —— of you two gentlemen a fountain-pen?
3. I defy any candid and clear thinker to deny in the name of
inductive science —— of these six propositions.
4. When two persons disagree, it is not likely that —— is altogether wrong.
5. Has —— of you who have just come from the ball-field seen Julian?
6. I have several histories of France, —— of which will give you the information.
7. Here come Harry and Arthur; —— will go to get it for you.
8. Give it to the six successful students or to —— of them.

Each or all.[59]Each denotes every one of any number taken one by one; all denotes the entire number taken together.

[[59] "Foundations," p. 70.


Insert the proper word ("each," "all") in each blank:—

1. —— gave me his (their) hand(s).
2. —— of the workmen received two dollars a day.
3. —— of the children has (have) his (their) peculiar traits.
4. —— of the members is (are) entitled to a vote.
5. He gave an apple to —— of us.
6. Did your father bring the boat to Harry? No, he brought it to —— of us.
7. —— of them did his (their) duty.

Change of Pronoun.[60]—In referring to the same person or thing a writer should not change from one pronoun to another.

The possessive of "one" is "one's" (not "his"), except in such expressions as "every one," "no one," "many a one." The reflexive is "one's self."

It is a common but serious fault to begin to write in the third person, and then to change to the first or second.

[60] Ibid., pp. 72-74.


Fill the blanks with the proper pronouns:—

1. The Second Regiment of the National Guard, —— was sent to Pittsburg during the strike, and —— is now in camp at Gettysburg, has six hundred members.
2. John started to school last Monday; we wish —— success.
3. Proud damsel, —— shalt be proudly met. I withdraw my pretensions to —— hand until I return from the war.
4. As —— hast said, —— lands are not endangered. But hear me before I leave ——.
5. The cat was crouching on the piazza and we were watching ——. Suddenly —— tail twitched nervously and —— prepared to spring.
6.     "Ere you remark another's sin,
      Bid —— conscience look within."
7. At first one is likely to wonder where the boats are, since on entering the grove —— is (are) able to see only a small cabin.
8. Dost —— talk of revenge? —— conscience, it seems, has grown dull.
9. As a Christian —— art obliged to forgive —— enemy.
10. Did you never bear false witness against —— neighbor?
11. The shepherd ran after a sheep and caught —— just as —— was jumping over a hedge.
12. The hen gathered —— brood under —— wing.
13. This is a book which I have never read, but one —— is recommended by Mrs. M.


1. Write the following note in clear and correct form, using the third person:—

"Mr. Smith presents his compliments to Mr. Jones, and finds he has a cap which isn't mine. So, if you have a cap which isn't his, no doubt they are the ones."[61]

2. Write a formal note in the third person, asking an acquaintance to dine with you at a certain hour in order that you may consult with him about some matter of importance.

3. Write a note in the third person accepting or declining this invitation.

4. Write a formal note in the third person to some gentleman to whom you have a letter of introduction, asking when it will be convenient to have you call.

5. Write a notice in the third person offering a reward for the recovery of a lost article.

Singular or Plural Pronouns.[62]—The rule that a pronoun should be in the same number as its antecedent is violated most commonly in connection with such expressions as "any one," "each," "either," "every," "man after man," "neither," "nobody." Grammatically such expressions are singular.

"He" ("his," "him") may stand for mankind in general and include women as well as men.

[61] Quoted in "Foundations," p. 74.
[62] "Foundations," pp. 75-76.


Fill the blanks with the proper pronouns:

1. Many a brave man met —— death in the war.
2. Has everybody finished —— exercise?
3. If any one has not finished let —— hold up —— hand.
4. It is true that this is a free country; but that does not mean that every one may do as —— please (pleases).
5. Either John or Harry will let you look on —— book.
6. Let each take —— turn.
7. If anybody but John had come, we would not have admitted ——.
8. Any one who wishes may have a ribbon to wear in —— button-hole.
9. Neither Bois-Guilbert nor Front de Boeuf found himself (them selves) a match for the unknown knight who challenged ——.
10. Every kind of animal has —— own proper food.
11. Not an officer, not a private escaped getting —— clothes wet.
12. The Senate has (have) instructed —— conferees to yield to the demand of the conferees of the House of Representatives.
13. Everybody has possessions of some kind which —— prize (prizes) highly.
14. It is a shame that each of the men, when —— draw (draws) —— pay, take (takes) it to the tavern.
15. Will either of you gentlemen lend me —— (third person) pencil?
16. Two men saw the deed; but neither would tell what —— saw.
17. Every one should be careful of the feelings of those around —.
18. Each of the pupils has (have) —— own dictionary.
19. Nobody went out of —— way to make her feel at home.
20. Neither Charles nor his brother ate —— breakfast this morning.
21. Everybody goes to bed when —— please (pleases).
22. The committee has handed in —— report.
23. The senior class has elected —— class-day speakers.
24. If any one wishes to see me let —— call at my office.
25. Either Florence or Grace will lend you —— fan.
26. Every one must judge of —— own feelings.
27. Whoever loves —— school should do —— best to elevate the school tone.
28. A person who is rude in —— table manners will be disliked.
29. Nobody in —— senses ever thinks of doing that.
30. Each one as before will chase —— favorite phantom.
31. She laughs like one out of —— mind.
32. Everybody was on deck amusing —self (selves) as best —could.
33. No one should marry unless —— has (have) the means of supporting — self (selves) and —— family.
34. Probably everybody is eloquent at least once in —— life.
35. Everybody rises early and goes on deck, where —— inhale (inhales) the fresh salt air.
36. Bach of the gentlemen offered —— assistance.
37. Nobody but a fool would have left —— money in such a place.
38. Anybody wishing to sell —— bicycle will please call at No. 267.
39. Franklin and Collins started off together, each with very little money in —— pockets.
40. In the time of Franklin's great-great-grandfather, if a person was caught using an English Bible —— was (were) treated as a heretic.
41. Nobody should praise —self (selves).
42. Neither the merchant nor the lawyer made —self (selves) rich.
43. Every man and every boy received —— wages.
44. When the carnival comes off everybody who owns a boat, or who can borrow one, decorates it as best —— can with lanterns and trimmings.
45. Every cowboy carries a pistol and knows how to use it very quickly; — also has (have) a knife stuck in —— belt, in the use of which —— is (are) very expert.
46. Everybody's heart is open, you know, when —— has (have) recently escaped from severe pain.

Omitted Pronouns.[63]—The omission of necessary pronouns—an omission especially common in business letters—cannot be justified on the ground of brevity.

[63] "Foundations," pp. 77, 78.


Insert the omitted pronouns in

1. After twenty-two years' experience announce the opening of my new store. Hope to serve the public better by presenting new ideas. Would invite inspection.
2. Have received manuscript, but not had time to examine. Will take up in a few days. If good, will publish.
3. Dr. Jones and wife occupy the front room.
4. My inability to get employment, and destitute condition, depressed me.
5. She didn't trouble to make any excuse to her husband.
6. Accept thanks for lovely present. Hope we may have the pleasure of using together in the near future.

Redundant Pronouns.—A vulgarism not often seen in writing, but
common in conversation, consists in the use of an unnecessary pronoun
after the subject of a sentence. Thus,

Teacher: Who was Benjamin Franklin?
Pupil: Benjamin Franklin, he was a great American philosopher and statesman.



Correct and Incorrect Forms.[64]—It is not enough to learn by heart the "principal parts" of a verb; the habit of using them correctly should be acquired. The following verb-forms are often misused:—

Present. Past Indicative. Past Participle.
awake (intransitive) awoke awaked
begin began begun
beseech besought besought
blow blew blown
bid ("to order," "to greet")   băde bidden or bid
bid (at auction) bid bidden or bid
break broke broken[65]
burst burst burst
choose chose chosen
come came come
dive dived dived
do did done
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
flee fled fled
fly flew flown
freeze froze frozen
forget forgot forgotten
get got got[66]
go went gone
hang hung, hanged[67]   hung, hanged[67]
lay ("to cause to lie") laid laid
lie ("to recline") lay lain
plead pleaded pleaded
prove proved proved[68]
ride rode ridden
rise (intransitive) rose risen
raise (transitive) raised raised
run ran run
see saw seen
set ("to put"; of the sun,  
     moon, etc., "to sink")
set set
sit sat sat
shake shook shaken
shoe shod shod
show showed shown
speak spoke spoken
slay slew slain
steal stole stolen
take took taken
throw threw thrown
wake (transitive) woke waked
write wrote written

In using the verbs drink, ring, shrink, sing, sink, spring, swim, it seems better to confine the forms in "a" to the preterite tense, and the forms in "u" to the past participle: as, "The bell rang five minutes ago"; "Yes, the bell has rung."[69]

The following forms also should be distinguished:—

Present. Past. Participle.
alight ("to get down from,"
     to dismount")
alighted alighted
light ("to ignite,"
     "to shed light on")
lighted[70] lighted[70]
light ("to settle down as
     a bird from flight," or
     "to come upon by chance")  
lighted or lit   lighted or lit

[64] "Foundations," pp.78-81, 91-93.
[65] "Broke," as a form of the past participle, is still found in verse.
[66] "Gotten" is an old form not sanctioned by the best modern usage.
[67] "Clothes are 'hung' on the line; men are 'hanged' on the gallows."—"Foundations," p. 79.
[68] "'Proven' is borrowed from the Scotch legal dialect."—"Foundations," p.92
[69] Ibid., p. 91.
[70] "'Lighted' seems preferable to 'lit'; but 'lit' is used by some writers of reputation."—Ibid., p. 92.


Change the italicized verbs in these sentences to the past tense

1. The guests begin to go home.
2. I beseech you to hear me.
3. The wind blows furiously.
4. The steward bids me say that supper is ready.
5. Mr. O. bids forty-two dollars for the picture.
6. George dives better than any other boy in the crowd.
7. I do it myself.
8. They eat their supper as if they were half starved..
9. The enemy flee before us.
10. The door flies open.
11. The wild goose flies southward in the autumn.
12. He flees at the smell of powder.
13. The Susquehanna river overflows its banks.
14. The workmen lay the rails for the track with great care.
15. Obedient to the doctor's directions, she lies down an hour every day.
16. Our cat lies on the rug by the hour watching for mice.
17. The cows lie under the trees in the meadow.
18. Helen comes in and lays her coat on a chair.
19. The envoys plead with Caesar earnestly.
20. Both short-stop and pitcher run for the ball.
21. He runs up to Mr. C. as if to strike him.
22. I see two cannon and a company of infantry.
23. Harry sees me coming.
24. The negro women set their baskets on their heads.
25. They sit in the third pew from the front.
26. Mr. N. always shoes my pony.
27. The savages who live on this island slay their captives.
28. The catcher often throws the ball to the second base.
29. The sun wakes me early.
30. The bell rings at seven o'clock.
31. The stag drinks his fill.
32. She sings sweetly.
33. Armed men spring up on all sides.
34. Tom swims very well indeed.
35. The vessel sinks with all on board.
36. The colonel and his staff alight in front of the general's tent.
37. He lights the lamp with a splint.
38. On the trees a crested peacock lights.


Change these sentences so that the italicized, verbs will be either in
the perfect tense or in the passive voice:—

1. The sleeper awakes.
2. The Gauls beseech Caesar to be merciful.
3. The wind blows my papers off the table.
4. Ethel broke her arm.
5. His wrongdoing breaks my heart.
6. The pressure of the water breaks the pipes.
7. They choose Mr. W. to be their chairman.
8. The enemy come in force.
9. The boys dive three times.
10. John is driving the cows out of the corn.
11. The boys are eating their supper.
12. An absconding cashier flees to Canada.
13. A robin flies to the vines by my window.
14. The Ohio river overflows its banks.
15. The water in my pitcher froze.
16. I forget his name
17. He gets along fairly well.
18. They go by steamer.
19. The sheriff hangs the condemned man.
20. The maid hangs up my cloak.
21. I lie on the couch twenty minutes to rest.
22. Tramps lie by the road below the gate.
23. Boys lay traps for hares.
24. They lay burdens on me greater than I can bear.
25. They plead their cause well.
26. This proves the truth of my assertion.
27. He rides alone from Litchfield to Waterbury
28. A mist rises before my eye.
29. I see the President often.
30. I set the lamp on the table.
31. He sits by the hour talking politics.
32. Rab shakes the little dog by the neck.
33. He is shoeing my horse.
34. This fact clearly shows the prisoner's guilt.
35. He speaks his declamation well.
36. They slay their prisoners.
37. He stole my watch.
38. Some one takes my hat.
39. He throws cold water on my plan.
40. He writes home.
41. He wakes me every night by his restlessness.

NOTE.—If the teacher thinks that the class needs more drill of this kind, Exercises XXXVIII. and XXXIX. may be reversed, that is, the verbs in XXXVIII. may be changed to perfect or passive forms; the verbs in XXXIX. to the past tense. If this is done, some of the sentences will have to be slightly recast. In the next exercise drill on the same forms is continued in a different way.


Insert the proper form in each of the blanks in the following sentences:—

Awake, wake.
1. I—at six o'clock this morning; I have—at about the same time ever since I came to school.
2. Lord Byron one morning—to find himself famous. A certain Mr. Peck—one day last week to find that the Nation had made him notorious.
3. A few nights ago Mr. Michael Dixon was—by a burglar in his bedroom.
4. He—me an hour before time.
5. Have you—your brother?
6. He—as I opened the door.

7. He had—his speech before we arrived.
8. The Senators—to ask him questions. Then he—to be confused.

9. When the Major passed us he—us good-morning very politely.
10. Father has for—us to go there.

11. Before the sunset gun was fired the bugler—a strain on his bugle.
12. The top-mast of the sloop was—away.

13. Did you hear that Waldo has—his leg?
14. The window was—by Jack.

15. When the South Sea bubble—, thousands of families were made poor.
16. The cannon was—by an overcharge of powder.

17. If they had—him, they would have—more wisely.
18. A better day for a drive could not have been—.

19. Harry—running up to me and asked me to lend him my cap.

20. The loon saw the flash of my gun and—.
21. It had—several times before.

22. I know he—it; for it could not have been—by any one else.
23. Ask him why he—it.

24. He was—out of town by his indignant neighbors.
25. This stake has been—in deep.

26. The scraps were—up by the dog.
27. The men have—their dinner.

Flee, fly, flow.
28. During the night the river had over—its banks.
29. Benedict Arnold was forced to—the country. He—to England.
30. The birds have—away.
31. The guilty man has—. He—with his family to Mexico.
32. Our meadow was over—during the freshet.
33. The yacht—like a bird before the wind.
34. The lotus-eaters watched the gleaming river as it—seaward.
35. It had—through the same channel hundreds of years.
36. The terrified savages—to the mountains.
37. They shall—from the wrath to come.
38. The plantations along the Mississippi are over—.

39. Once Sydney Smith, being asked his name by a servant, found to his dismay that he had—his own name.
40. Maude is late; she must have—the time.

41. I thought my ears were—.
42. He would have—to death if he had not been found by the
St. Bernard dogs.

43. They have—home.
44. Whenever any milk was wanted it could be—from the magic pitcher.
45. Grace has—three seats for to-night.
46. Franklin asked the boy where he had—the bread.

47. The price of coal has—up since last year.
48. He would have—with us if he had been invited.

49. Judas, overwhelmed with remorse, went and,—himself.
50. In olden times in England a man was—for stealing a sheep.

Lay, lie.
51. Two men—under the hay-stack all yesterday morning. They must have—there all night.
52.—down and rest.
53. He came in and—his books on his desk.
54. After he—down he remembered that he had left his pocket-book—ing by the open window.
55. He played until he was so tired that he had to—down.
56. He has—himself at full length on the grass.
57. You had better—down for a while after dinner.
58. I have—down, and I feel rested.
59. I—down an hour ago to take a nap.
60. The scene of "The Lady of the Lake" is—in the lake region of Scotland.
61. The tired lambs—down to rest.
62. Darkness settled down while the soldiers—behind the breast-works.
63. Had you not better—down a while?
64. After they had been—ing silent for an hour, the command was given to prepare for a march; afterward the men —— down again and waited for the next order.
65. When Romeo saw Juliet —— ing in the casket, he —— down by her side and drank the poison. When Juliet awoke, seeing Romeo —— ing beside her dead, she took a sword which —— near and killed herself.

66. He —— tearfully to be set free, but his captors were firm.
67. Yesterday he —— "not guilty."

68. It cannot be —— that Mars is inhabited.
69. He thinks that the prisoner's innocence has been ——.

70. We had —— only a short distance when rain began to fall.
71. Have you ever —— on a bicycle?

Rise, raise.
72. She could not get her bread to ——.
73. The price of corn has ——.
74. I —— so that I might look around.
75. The students —— him upon their shoulders.

76. You look as if you had —— all the way home.
77. He —— up to me and asked what time it was.
78. He said some thief had taken his coat and had —— away with it.

79. Charlie, who has just come in, says he —— two suspicious looking men near the barn.
80. Yes, I —— him an hour ago.
81. That is the best dog I ever ——.

Set, sit.
82. Please —— still while I try to find her.
83. The old man was ——ting in his easy-chair.
84. He —— out for Boston day before yesterday.
85. —— down and talk awhile.
86. The sun ——s at six o'clock twice a year.
87. I —— the basket on a rock while I went to the spring.
88. We —— with our friends at the table for over an hour.
89. In which seat did you ——?
90. I am—ting in my study by the window.
91. The children are dreadfully sunburnt; yesterday they—in the sun on the beach all the morning.
92. Just—down, till I call her.
93. Annie, I have—the pitcher on the table.
94. He has—there all the evening.
95. We were all—ting round the fire.
96. I had to—up all night.
97. The farmer after felling the tree found that it had fell (fallen) on a—ting hen that had laid (lain) her eggs under its branches.

98. All the restraints of home had been—off long before.
99. John—the tree; Lida picked up the nuts.
100. After they had—off the dust, they entered the house.

101. Go, ask Mr. N. whether he has—the horses yet.
102. He says he—them an hour ago.

103. They have—their good intention.
104. Has Edward—you his yacht? Yes, he—it to me this morning.

105. English is—in many parts of the world.
106. After he had—a half-hour we had to leave.

107. David—Goliath with a pebble.
108. A brave man never boasts of having—his thousands.

109. He thinks the horse was—.
110. Some one has—my purse.

111. I found upon inquiry that I had mis—the house
112. Yesterday she—me home with her.
113. You look as if you had—root there.

114. He—the ball to me and I—it back.
115. The Governor's son was—from his pony this morning.

116. I think he should have—and told us.
117. He—for the book two days ago.
118. She has—for samples.

119. The toast was—with great enthusiasm.
120. Then they—to the health of the President.
121. He had once—sour wine and slept in the secret chamber at
Wolf's Crag.

122. The fire bell—twice last night. It had not—for two months before.
123. Has the last bell—?

124. The choir boys—the "Hallelujah Chorus" from "The Messiah." It seemed
to me that they had never—so well.

125. The steamer struck an iceberg and—with all on board.
126. They have—two wells, but have got (gotten) no water.

127. The grass—up like magic last night.
128. Homer describes a race of men who—from the gods.

129. I once—three-quarters of a mile without stopping.
130. Having—the river, the fugitives plunged into the forest.


Illustrate by original sentences the proper use of the past indicative and the past participle of each of the following verbs, thus: A swallow FLEW into my room, but before I recovered from my surprise it had FLOWN out again. Give to the sentences variety:

Awake, beat, begin, beseech, blow, bid (to order), bid (to offer), break, burst, choose, come, dive, do, drive, eat, flee, fly, flow, forget, freeze, get, go, hang, lay, lie (to recline), plead, prove, ride, rise, run, see, set, sit, shake, shoe, show, speak, slay, steal, take, throw, wake, write.

Contractions.[71]—Some writers hold that in careful writing contracted forms should be avoided; but all are agreed that in conversation some contractions, if correctly used, are natural and proper. The conversation of a person who never said "can't" for "can not," "don't" for "do not," or "doesn't" for "does not," would seem stiff. Care should, however, be taken not to use plural contractions for singular, or singular for plural. Don't is a contraction of "do not," doesn't of "does not." The proper contraction of "is not" is isn't; of "are not," aren't. Daresn't, if used at all, should be used only when "dares not" might be substituted. Ain't is a gross vulgarism.

[71] "Foundations," pp. 81-82.


Insert the proper contraction (doesn't, don't) in each of the blank

1. It—- seem possible.
2. The captain—- know what it is to be afraid.
3. John says he—- understand the problem on page 266.
4. Why—- she come?
5.—- it seem strange that they—- come?
6. Waldo—- improve in penmanship as fast as he should.
7. It—- look like pure water.
8. Why—- he answer?
9. The boy will fail, but he—- seem to care much.

May (might) or can (could).[72]Can and could, which denote "ability" or "possibility," are often wrongly used in the place of may and might, which are the proper words to denote "permission."

[72] Ibid., pp. 82-83.


Fill the blanks with the right words:

1. —— I leave the room?
2. You —— go to the concert, but I doubt whether you—- get a seat.
3. —— we by searching find out God?
4. —— I have some more lemonade?
5. —— I have another piece of cake?
6. —— you tell me which is Mr. Ames's house?
7. Mother says I—invite the girls to tea.
8. A man who knows himself to be right—afford to await the judgment of posterity.
9. —I write at your desk?
10. You—come to see me whenever you—find time.
11. They asked whether they—have a holiday.
12. They were wondering whether they—be recognized in their disguises.
13. —I have the use of your sled?
14. —I trouble you to get me a glass of water?

Will or shall.[73]—Some grammarians teach that the future tense of "go" is: "I shall or will go," "You shall or will go," "He shall or will go," etc. The fact seems to be that there is only one form for the future; the other form, often given as an alternative, expresses something more than futurity, and is somewhat like a distinct mode.

A help to the proper use of shall and will is found in the original meaning of the words. At first shall and will were notional verbs,[74] shall meaning "to owe," "to be obliged," and will meaning "to wish:" as, "That faith I shall (owe) to God."[75] At present shall and will often retain some trace of their original meaning, will implying a reference to the will of the subject, and shall implying obligation or compulsion: as, "I will follow him to the end;" "He shall be brought to justice;" sometimes they are mere auxiliaries, with no trace of their original meaning: as, "It will rain to-day;" "I shall be glad."

[73] "Foundations," pp. 83-88. [74] By "notional verb" is meant a verb that has some distinct idea or notion of its own: as, "I have a ball." Here "have" expresses the idea of possession. In the sentence "I have lost my ball," the word "have" does not express a distinct idea; it only helps to form a tense of the verb "lose": that is, it is not notional, but auxiliary. [75] Chaucer.

For practical purposes the distinction between shall and will may be exhibited as follows:—

Simple Futurity.
implying that the matter is within
the control of the speaker.
I (we) shall
go.   I (we) will
you will[76] you shall
he (they) will he (they) shall[77]

[76] Sometimes used in a courteous command to a subordinate officer.
[77] Also used in speaking of what is destined to take place, or of what
is willed by some ruling power.


In noun clauses introduced by "that," expressed or understood, if the noun clause and the principal clause have different subjects, the distinction between shall and will is the same as in independent sentences: as,

My sister says (that) Dorothy will be glad to go with us. (Futurity; the same as, "Dorothy will be glad to go with us.")

My sister says (that) Dorothy shall not be left behind. (Volition; the same as, "Dorothy _shall_ not be left behind.")

In all other dependent clauses, shall is in all persons the proper auxiliary to express simple futurity; will in all persons implies an exercise of will on the part of the subject of the clause: as,

Dorothy says (that) she shall (futurity) be able to go with us. She says (that) she will (volition) meet us at the corner. If Bessie will come (volition), we will try to make her visit pleasant. When He shall appear (futurity) we shall be like Him.

REMARK.—It is worthy of notice that in noun clauses introduced by "that"—clauses which are really indirect quotations—the same auxiliary is generally used that would be used were the quotation in the direct form: as, "My sister says, 'Dorothy will be glad to go with you,'" "My sister says that Dorothy will be glad to go with us;" "Dorothy says, 'I shall be glad to go with you,'" "Dorothy says that she shall be glad to go with us." This remark, however, is not an adequate statement of the best usage, for it is not true of such sentences as 21, p. 76, and 8, 22, p. 77.


In the first person "will" is never proper, except when it repeats a question asked by another person. "Will I go?" would mean, "Is it my intention to go?"—a useless question, since the speaker must know his own will without asking.

In the second and third persons the auxiliary which is expected in the answer should be used.

Will you dine with me to-morrow? I will. (Volition.) Shall you be glad to come? I shall. (Futurity.) Will your brother be there, too? He will. (Futurity.)

Would or should.[78]—"Should and would follow the same rules as shall and will, but they have in addition certain meanings peculiarly their own.

"Should is sometimes used in its original sense of 'ought,' as in 'You should not do that.'

"Would is sometimes used to signify habitual action, as in 'The 'Squire would sometimes fall asleep in the most pathetic part of my sermon;' and to express a wish, as, 'Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!'"[79]

[78] "Foundations," pp. 88-90.
[79] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p 63.


Distinguish in meaning between the following sentences:

1. I will (shall) meet you in the village.
2. I will (shall) be obeyed.
3. Will he come? Shall he come?
4. You will (shall) repent of this.
5. He will (shall) not see me.
6. You will (shall) have a new suit to-morrow.
7. Shall (will) you stay at home to-night?
8. We will (shall) not be left alone.
9. She will (shall) have a reward if she continues faithful.
10. He would (should) start in spite of the danger.
11. Shall (will) you be a candidate?
12. He said he would (should) not go.
13. I shall (will) never see him again.
14. You will (shall) know to-morrow the result of the examination.
15. Will (shall) he who fails be allowed to try again?
16. Will (shall) the admission fee be twenty-five or fifty cents?
17. He thought there would (should) be a charge.
18. I will (shall) be the last to go.
19. He thought I would (should) wait.
20. He says that she will (shall) not eat watermelon.
21. If she disobeyed she would (should) be punished.
22. Do you think I should (would) go under the circumstances?
23. If they would (should) come, the danger would be averted.
24. If I would (should) say so, he would dislike me.
25. He says he will (shall) not come, since she forgot him at first.
26. We will (shall) come as soon as we can.
27. I will (shall) not endure his rudeness.
28. John says he will (shall) stay to see the game.


Insert the proper auxiliary (will, shall) in each blank in the following sentences:

1. I —— be drowned; nobody —— help me.
2. You —— have a wet day for your journey.
3. He says he —— not be able to come.
4. We —— not soon forget this picnic.
5. He —— repent of his folly when it is too late.
6. We —— be pleased to have you call.
7. The gathering —— be informal; therefore I —— not need my dress suit
8. We —— have occasion to test the wires to-night.
9. I —— be obliged to you for your autograph.
10. He —— be obliged to you.
11. The managers have agreed that the race —— be rowed again.
12. Do you think we —— have rain?
13. If the fire is not put out soon, we —— have the whole town to rebuild.
14. Do not fear; we —— be all right.
15. A prize is offered to whoever —— guess this conundrum.
16. We —— find ourselves much mistaken.
17. The time is coming when we —— have to go elsewhere for lumber.
18. Are you not afraid that you —— miss the train?
19. Yes, I fear that I —— miss the train.
20. He is afraid that he —— miss the train.
21. They say I —— find picture-galleries in every city.
22. Think what a happy life we —— live.
23. If you will call for me, I —— be glad to go with you.
24. I —— be sixteen in May.
25. John thinks he —— be sick to-morrow.
26. He says James —— be sick to-morrow.
27. Howard thinks he —— probably live to old age.
28. Howard thinks his brother —— probably live to old age.
29. He tells me that he—be ten next month.
30. We —— be all right if Congress will (shall) adjourn without tampering with the tariff.
31. If we examine the falling snow, we —— find that each flake consists of particles of ice.
32. He has resolved that he —— not answer the letter.
33. She has resolved that her daughter —— not answer his letter.
34. I —— feel greatly obliged if you —— tell me.
35. When He—appear, we —— be like Him.
36. I hope we —— be in time to get good seats.
37. When —— I come to get my paper?
38. —— I put more coal on the fire?
39. —— you be sorry to leave Boston?
40. —— you be elected?
41. When —— we three meet again?
42. —— I fetch a chair for you?
43. —— you be surprised to hear it?
44. —— you do me the favor to reply by return mail?
45. —— we have time to get our tickets?
46. —— you have time to get your ticket?
47. —— he have time to get his ticket?
48. —— there be time to get our tickets?
49. —— you be at leisure after dinner?
50. —— I find you at home?
51. When —— we have peace?
52. —— he find gold there? —— we find any?
53. —— we hear a good lecture if we go?
54. If I fail on this examination,—— I be allowed to take it over again?


Insert the proper auxiliary (would, should) in each blank in the following sentences:—

1. I —— like to know who he is.
2. We —— prefer to go by boat from Rhinebeck.
3. He —— prefer to go by boat from Poughkeepsie.
4. He —— be sorry to miss his train.
5. I —— be sorry to lose this umbrella.
6. I —— feel hurt if he —— abuse my hospitality in that way.
7. Were I to go, I —— get tired.
8. He ought to have known that we —— be ruined.
9. I —— think he —— know they are fooling him.
10. The head-master decided that you —— be promoted.
11. Ralph said he —— (volition) not stay at the hotel if it were not better kept.
12. Though I —— die for it, yet —— I do it.
13. I was afraid she —— not come.
14. If I knew where she is, I —— write to her.
15. We —— have been paid, if the treasurer had been at home.
16. They —— have been paid, if the treasurer had been at home.
17. I said nothing lest she —— feel hurt.
18. I asked her whether she —— come again.
19. He promised that it —— not occur again.
20. If it —— rain, we would not start.
21. Queen Isabella offered a reward to the first man who —— discover land.
22. Cornelia was afraid that we —— miss the train.
23. I expected that they —— accept the proposal.
24. He said Miss Anderson —— not return to the stage.
25. Franklin resolved that Collins —— row. Collins said that he —— not row, but that Franklin —— row in his place.
26. At first I did not think I —— enjoy seeing the World's Fair.
27. What —— we do without our friends?
28. If he —— come to-day, would (should) you be ready?

Questions of Tense.[80]—The tense of a verb should correctly express the time referred to. Most errors in the use of tenses are violations of some one of the following principles, which are established by good usage:—

1. Principal verbs referring to the same time should be in the same tense. 2. The perfect indicative >represents something as now completed—as begun in the past but continuing till the present, at least in its consequences: as, "I have lost my book" (so that now I do not have it); "This house has stood for ninety years" (it is still standing); "Bishop Brooks has died, but he has left us his example" (he is not now among us, but we have his example).
3. The tense of the verb in a dependent clause varies with the tense of the principal verb:[81] as,
I know he will come.
I knew he would come.
I have taken the first train, that I may arrive early.
I had taken the first train, that I might arrive early.
Blanche will be frightened if she sees the bat.
Blanche would be frightened if she saw the bat.
Blanche would have been frightened if she had seen the bat.

Present facts and unchangeable truths, however, should be expressed in the present tense, regardless of the tense of the principal verb: as, "What did you say his name is?"
4. The perfect infinitive is properly used to denote action which is completed at the time denoted by the principal verb: as, "I am glad to have seen Niagara Falls;" "He felt sorry to have hurt your feelings."

EXCEPTION.—Ought, must, need, and should (in the sense of "ought") have no distinctive form to denote past time; with these verbs present time is denoted by putting the complementary infinitive in the present tense, past time is denoted by putting the complementary infinitive in the perfect tense: as, "You ought to go," "You ought to have gone;" "He should be careful," "He should have been careful." A similar change from the present to the perfect infinitive is found after could and might in some of their uses: as, "I could go," "I could have gone;" "You might have answered."

[80] "Foundations," pp. 93-98.
[81] This is sometimes called the "Law of the Sequence of Tenses."


Distinguish in meaning between the following:—

1. The house stood (has stood) twenty years.
2. The messenger came (has come).
3. He should stay (have stayed).
4. It rained (has rained) for two weeks.
5. He was believed to live (to have lived) a happy life.
6. He ought to go (to have gone).
7. He deposited (has deposited) the money in bank.
8. I am sure I could go (have gone) alone.
9. Yesterday at three o'clock I completed (had completed) my work.
10. He must be (have been) weary.
11. He appeared to be (have been) crying.
12. He need not go. He need not have gone.
13. The horse jumped (had jumped) into the field, and began (had begun) to eat the corn.
14. Achilles is said to be (have been) buried at the foot of this hill.


Which of the italicized forms is right?—

1. Where did you say Pike's Peak is (was)?
2. I intended to do (to have done) it yesterday.
3. Atlas is (was) a mythical giant who was supposed to hold (to have held) the sky on his shoulders.
4. I do not think that any one would say that winter is (was) preferable to spring.
5. Cadmus was supposed to build (to have built) Thebes.
6. Your father grieves to hear (to have heard) of your bad conduct.
7. Would he have been willing to go (to have gone) with you?
8. I meant to write (to have written) yesterday.
9. He tried to learn how far it is (was) from New York to Syracuse.
10. He hardly knew that two and two make (made) four.
11. His experience proved that there is (was) many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip.
12. Carrie knew that water is (was) composed of two gases.
13. It was their duty to prevent (to have prevented) this outrage.
14. He was reported to rescue (to have rescued) the drowning man.
15. It would have been unkind to refuse (to have refused) to help (to have helped) him.
16. It would not have been difficult to prevent (to have prevented) the disaster.
17. Where did you say Gettysburg is (was)?
18. It was as true as that he is (was) listening to me when I said it.
19. It was harder than I expected it would be (have been).
20. Homer is supposed to be (to have been) born about 850 B.C.
21. When I came I intended to buy (to have bought) all Paris.
22. Washington is known to have (to have had) many narrow escapes.
23 If you would only wait, your success will (would) be certain.
24. Is he very sick? I should say he is (was).
25. Who first asserted that virtue is (was) its own reward?
26. We have done no more than it was our duty to do (to have done).
27. What building is (was) that which we just passed?
28. He impressed on us the truth that honesty is (was) the best policy.
29. He expected to see (to have seen) you to-morrow.
30. He expected to win (to have won) the suit, and was astonished at the decision of the court.
31. The result of such constant reading by poor light would have been to destroy (to have destroyed) his sight.
32. It would have given me great satisfaction to relieve (to have relieved) him from his distress.
33. Who would have thought it possible to receive (to have received) a reply from India so soon?
34. It would have been better to wait (to have waited).
35. I should like to hear (to have heard) the speeches of Hayne and Webster.
36. The furniture was to be (to have been) sold at auction.
37. It was a pity I was the only child, for my mother had fondness of heart enough to spoil (to have spoiled) a dozen children.
38. I am writing to him so that he may (might) be ready for us.
39. I have written to him so that he may (might) be ready for us.
40. I wrote to him so that he may (might) be ready for us.


Examine the tenses in the following sentences, explain any errors which
you find, and correct them

1. I knew him since boyhood.
2. It was a superstition among the Mexicans that a bullet will not kill a man unless it has his name stamped on it.
3. Being absent from the last recitation, I am unable to write on the subject assigned this morning.
4. Soon after Oliver reached home a servant announces the presence of Charles.
5. "'Got any luck?' says I. 'No,' says he. 'Well,' says I, 'I've got the finest string of trout ever was seen.'"
6. Be virtuous and you would be happy.
7. Stackhouse believed that he solved the problem he had so long studied over, and yesterday afternoon he started from his house, No. 2446 North Tenth Street, to make a test.
8. This beautiful little bird that appears to the king and tries to warn him, was not an ordinary bird.
9. Next September I shall be at school three years.
10. I know very little about the "Arabian Nights," for I have never read any of the stories before I came to this school.
11. If he received your instructions he would have obeyed them.
12. Before he was going to have the sign printed he submitted it to his friends for corrections.
13. The Balloon Society recently invited Mr. Gould to read before them a paper on yachting. Mr. Gould, in reply, has expressed regret that the shortness of his visit will prevent him from accepting the invitation.
14. I should be obliged to him if he will gratify me in that respect.
15. While he was in England the British had given him very honorable positions in America in order to have his help if they had any trouble with the colonies.
16. Up and down the engines pounded. It is a good twenty-one knots now, and the upper deck abaft the chart-house began rapidly to fill.
17. Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln regret that a previous engagement, will prevent them from accepting Mrs. Black's kind invitation for Thursday.
18. Mr. Rockwell will accept with pleasure the invitation of Mr. and Mrs. Pembroke for Tuesday evening, December 3d.
19. I am sure that he has been there and did what was required of him.
20. He might probably have been desirous, in the first place, to have dried his clothes and refreshed himself.
21. He could not have failed to have aroused suspicion.
22. When, on the return of Dr. Primrose's son Moses from the Fair, the family had discovered how he had been cheated, we are shown an admirable picture of home life.
23. Apart from his love, Orlando was also a noble youth. When old Adam, at last overcome by fatigue, sank in the footsteps of Orlando, Orlando tries to encourage and assist him.
24. The increase in tonnage was not so rapid as it would have been were it not for the Act of 1790.

Indicative or Subjunctive.[82]—The modern tendency to drop the subjunctive is unfortunate, for the distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative is too useful to be abandoned.[83] A knowledge of the difference between these modes in English is especially important in view of the difficulty which pupils complain of in mastering the uses of the Latin subjunctive or the Greek subjunctive and optative.[84] For these reasons more space is given to the subjunctive in this book than would be called for by a mere discussion of modern English usage.

Forms of the Subjunctive—In form the English subjunctive differs from the indicative in several ways:—

1. In the single case of the verb to be there are distinct forms for the present and past tenses, namely:—

I, we
be. I were, we
thou,   you thou wert,   you
he, they he were, they

EXAMPLES.—"See that my room be[85] got ready at once." "I will work you a banner if you be[85] victorious." "The headsman feels if the axe be[85] sharp." "Take care lest you be deceived." "Judge not that ye be not judged." "I will beard them, though they be[85] more fanged than wolves and bears." "If I were you, I would not say that." "If you were more studious, you would rank high." "Would that my parents were here!"

2. In other verbs the subjunctive form is distinguishable from the indicative in the second and third persons singular by the absence of the personal endings -th,-s, or -st: as,

Present Indicative: I have, thou hast, he has (hath).
Subjunctive: I have, thou have, he have.
Past Indicative: I had, thou hadst, he had.
Subjunctive: I had, thou had, he had.

Present Indicative: I come, thou comest, he comes (cometh).
Subjunctive: I come, thou come, he come.

Past Indicative: I came, thou earnest, he came.
Subjunctive: I came, thou came, he came.

[82] "Foundations," pp. 98-101.
[83] "Some people seem to think that the subjunctive mood is as good as lost, that it is doomed, and that its retention is hopeless. If its function were generally appreciated, it might even now be saved.... If we lose the Subjunctive Verb, it will certainly be a grievous impoverishment to our literary language, were it only for its value in giving variation to diction—and I make bold to assert that the writer who helps to keep it up deserves public gratitude."—John Earle: English Prose, its Elements, History, and Usage, p. 172.
[84] "The lecturer also put in a plea for more vitality in the teaching of English, which ought to be made the gate to other languages. Many of the difficult questions of Latin syntax might be examined in the field of English, if only we were careful to treat our English critically. Whereas most grammars cut the ground from under them by denying the existence of a Subjunctive Mood. Until teachers recognize generally that, in such a sentence as 'If he had done it, it had been better,' we have a Subjunctive in both clauses, and a sentence essentially different from 'If he had loved her before, he now adored her,' English must forfeit half its value, both as a mental discipline and as a means of approach to Latin, Greek, and German."—From a report of a Lecture by Prof. Sonnenschein, of the Mason College, quoted in Earle's "English Prose," p. 55. [85] In such sentences the indicative would be, according to modern usage, correct, and it is more common.

EXAMPLES.—"Long live the king!" "If thou go, see that thou offend not." "It is better he die." "Though he slay me, yet will I trust him." "Unless he behave[86] better, he will be punished." "If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?" "Govern well thy appetite, lest sin surprise thee." "If my sister saw this snake, she would be frightened." "I wish I knew where Charles is."

The perfect and pluperfect subjunctives are of course formed by means of the subjunctive present and past tenses of "have."

3. Very often, instead of the simple subjunctive forms, we use auxiliary verbs—may (past, might) and would or should—to express the subjunctive idea. "May" ("might") is common as an equivalent for the subjunctive mode in clauses denoting a purpose, a wish, a hope, or a fear:
as, "Bring him the book, that he may read to us;" "May he rest in peace;" "I hope you may succeed;" "They were afraid we might lose the way." "Would" and "should" are common substitutes for all tenses of the subjunctive: as, "Walk carefully lest you (stumble) should stumble;" "If he (come) should come, he will find me at home;" "It (were) would be better if he (went) should go alone;" "If my sister had seen this mouse, she (had been) would have been frightened." In these sentences either the form in parenthesis or the italicized form is correct, though the latter is more common.

NOTE.—It does not follow that the verbs "may," "would," and "should" always express the subjunctive idea. In the following sentences, for instance, they express the indicative idea: "You may (i.e., are permitted to) stay an hour;" "You should (i.e., ought to) be punctual;" "Edith would not (i.e., was unwilling to) come." In such sentences "may," "should," and "would" make simple statements of fact.

Uses of the Subjunctive.—The indicative form is used in expressing a fact or what is assumed to be a fact: as "He thinks he is ill;" the subjunctive form indicates some uncertainty or doubt in the speaker's mind: as, "Whether it rain or not, I will go."

The subjunctive idea occurs most frequently, perhaps, in conditional sentences. A conditional sentence is one that contains a condition or supposition. A supposition may refer to present, past, or future time. If it refers to present or past time, it may be viewed by the speaker as true, untrue, or as a mere supposition with nothing implied as to its truth; if it refers to the future, it may be viewed as either likely or unlikely. A supposition which is assumed to be true, or which is made without any hint as to its correctness, is expressed by the indicative. A supposition which is viewed by the speaker as untrue or unlikely is expressed by the subjunctive or a periphrase[87] for the subjunctive. When the character of the supposition makes the conclusion untrue or unlikely, the conclusion also is expressed by the subjunctive or a periphrase[87] for the subjunctive. The use of tenses is peculiar, as will be seen from the following table of a few common forms of conditional sentences. The tenses should be carefully noted:—

If it rains (is raining) now, I am sorry.
  Present indicative: A simple supposition without any hint as to its correctness
If it rained (were raining), I should be sorry.
  Past subjunctive, both clauses: The speaker implies that it is not raining.
If it rained (was raining), I was sorry.
  Past indicative: No suggestion of doubt.
If it had rained, I should have been sorry.
  Past perfect subjunctive, both clauses: The speaker implies that it did not rain.
If it rains, I shall be sorry.
  Present indicative: The common, though inexact, form of a simple future supposition.
If it rain, I shall be sorry.
  Present subjunctive: Less common, but more exact. The future is uncertain.
If it should (were to) rain, I should be sorry.
  Subjunctive, both clauses: The uncertainty is emphasized by the auxiliary form; the chances of rain seem more remote.

NOTE 1.—When if is equivalent to "whenever", the condition is called "general", to distinguish it from "particular" conditions, which refer to some particular act at some particular time. General conditions always take the indicative: as, "If (whenever) it rains, I stay at home."

NOTE 2.—Sometimes there is no "if", and then the verb or a part of the verb precedes the subject: as, "Were it raining, I should be sorry;" "Had it been raining, I should have been sorry."

NOTE 3.—In such sentences as "If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died," it may perhaps be questioned whether "had not died" is indicative, as in the Greek, or subjunctive, as in the Latin, idiom.

NOTE 4.—Clauses introduced by though and unless take the same forms as clauses introduced by if.

Wishes are naturally expressed in the subjunctive. The present subjunctive denotes a wish for the future: as, "Thy kingdom come." The past subjunctive denotes a wish for the present which is unfulfilled: as, "I wish I were a bird." The past perfect subjunctive denotes a wish contrary to a past fact: as, "I wish you had been there."

[86] In such sentences the indicative would be, according to modern usage,
correct, and it is more common.
[87] See paragraph 3, page 84. The forms in "would" and "should" in conditional sentences, though they express the subjunctive idea, can hardly be called the "subjunctive mood". Sometimes they are called the "conditional mood."


Tell the time referred to in each of the following sentences, and whether the speaker regards the condition as true, untrue, or uncertain:—

1. If all men did their duty, there would be less misery in the world.
2. Had I heard of the affair sooner, this misfortune would not have happened.
3. Were it true, I would say so.
4. I would go with you if I could spare the time.
5. She could sing if she would.
6. If love be rough with you, be rough with love.
7. If all the year were playing holidays, to play would be as tedious as to work.
8. If thou warn the wicked, and he turn not from his wickedness, he shall die in his iniquity.
9. He brags as if he were of note.
10. If the natural course of this stream be obstructed, the water will make a new channel.
11. If the natural course of a stream is obstructed, the water will make a new channel.
12. If the book was in my library, some one must have borrowed it.
13. If he knows the way, he does not need a guide.
14. If he still wishes to go, he may take my horse.
15. Had he followed my advice, he would be rich.
16. Had she lived a twelvemonth more
She had not died to-day.
17. Though gods they were, as men they died.
18. Though the law is severe, we must obey it.
19. If the law be severe, we must change it.
20. Though the vase were made of steel, the servant would break it.
21. Though the vase was made of steel, the servant broke it.


Tell the difference in meaning between the italicized forms:—

1. If he is (were) studious, he will (would) excel.
2. If he was (had been) studious, he excelled (would have excelled).
3. Oh, that you may be (were, had been) blameless.
4. Though he deceive (deceives) me, yet will I trust him.
5. Though he deceived me, yet will (would) I trust him.
6. Though he deceived (had deceived) me, yet would I trust him
7 Though the boy's coat was (were) made of silk, he soiled (would soil) it.


Which, of the italicized forms is preferable? Give the reason:—

1. They act as if it was (were) possible to deceive us.
2. If I was (were) in his place, I would go.
3. I wish my mother was (were) here.
4. See that no one is (be) forgotten.
5. If this is (be) treason, make the most of it.
6. If it rain (rains), the work is delayed.
7. If it rain (rains), the work will be delayed.
8. Take care lest you are (be) carried away by your feelings.
9. If he acquire (acquires) riches, they may make him worldly.
10. I could jump across the stream if it was (were) necessary.
11. If to-morrow is (be) breezy, we will go sailing.
12. If my father was (were) here, he would enjoy this.
13. If she was (were) at the reception, I did not see her.
14. If he speak (speaks) only to display his talents, he is unworthy of attention.
15. I wish I was (were) at home.
16. Though this seem (seems) improbable, it is true.
17. I should be surprised if this marriage take (took, will take, should take) place.
18. If the book was (were) in my library, I would send it.
19. I will see that he obey (obeys) you.
20. If a man smite (smites) his servant and the servant die (dies), the man shall surely be put to death.
21. Though he is (be) poor and helpless now, you may rest assured that he will not remain so.
22. I wish I was (were) a musician.
23. Make haste lest your ardor cool (cools).
24. He will continue his course, though it cost (costs) him his life.
25. Though a liar speak (speaks) the truth, he will hardly be believed.
26. Govern well thy appetite, lest sin surprise (surprises) thee.
27. Though gold is (be) more precious than iron, iron is more useful than gold.
28. Whether he go (goes) or not, it is your duty to go.
29. If he was (were, should be) elected, it would be his ruin.
30. If a picture is (be) admired by none but painters, the picture is bad.
31. If one went (should go) unto them from the dead, they would repent.
32. If an animal of any kind was (were) kept shut up in a box, it would surely die.
33. They will not believe, though one rose (rise) from the dead.
34. Clerk wanted. It is indispensable that he write (writes) a good hand and have (has) some knowledge of book-keeping.
35. If the debtor pay (pays) the debt, he shall be discharged.
36. If my sister go (goes), which I think is doubtful, she will surely call for you.
37. The most glorious hero that ever desolated nations might have mouldered into oblivion did (had) not some historian take (taken) him into favor.
38. He will see his error if he substitute (substitutes) "that which" for "what."
39. Though Dorothy is (be) young, she is tall.
40. Unless he take (takes) better care of his health, his constitution will break down.
41. If I lend you my horse, I shall (should) have to borrow one myself.
42. I hope that if any of my readers comes (come, should come) to New Haven, he may find the city just as I have described it.

Singular or Plural.[88]—The following principles, established by good usage, writers or speakers are liable to forget:—

1. The expressions each, every, many a, either, and neither are singular.
2. When the subject consists of singular nouns or pronouns connected by or, eitheror, or neithernor, the verb must be singular.
3. Words joined to the subject by with, together with, in addition to, or as well as, are not a part of the grammatical subject, but are parenthetical, and therefore do not affect the number of the verb.
4. Since a relative pronoun has the number and person of its antecedent, a verb whose subject is a relative pronoun agrees in person and number with the antecedent of the relative.
5. "When the subject though plural in form is singular in sense, the verb should be singular; when the subject though singular in form is plural in sense, the verb should be plural:"[89] as, "'Gulliver's Travels' was written by Swift;" "Five hundred dollars is a large sum;" "Half of them are gone."
6. "A collective noun, when it refers to the collection as a whole, is singular in sense, and therefore requires a singular verb; when it refers to the individual persons or things of the collection, it is plural and requires a plural verb."[90]

[88] "Foundations," pp, 101-108.
[89] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 56.
[90] Ibid., p. 57.


Insert the proper form of the verb "to be" in each of the blank places:—

1. "Horses" —— a common noun.
2. Such phenomena —— very strange.
3. The ship with all her crew —— lost.
4. No less than fifty dollars —— paid for what was not worth twenty.
5. Homer, as well as Virgil, —— once students (a student) on the banks of the Rhine.
6. The committee —— divided in its (their) judgment.
7. The genii who —— expected to be present —— deaf to every call.
8. France was once divided into a number of kingdoms, each of which —— ruled by a duke.
9. Sir Richard Steele lived in the reign of Queen Anne, when the tone of gentlemen's characters —— very low.
10. Each man employed in this department —— paid for his (their) work.
11. Mathematics —— my hardest study.
12. There —— once two boys who were so exactly alike in appearance that they could not be distinguished.
13. Each of the heads of the Chimera —— able to spit fire.
14. The jury —— eating dinner.
15. "Plutarch's Lives" —— an interesting book.
16. One of the most beautiful features of Kennebunkport —— the tremendous rocks all along the coast.
17. The richness of her arms and apparel —— conspicuous in the foremost ranks.
18. My robe and my integrity to heaven
—— all I dare now call my own.
19. Refreshing as springs in the desert to their long-languishing eyes —— the sight of his white cravat and his boots of Parisian polish.
20. The "Arabian Nights" in complete form comprise (comprises) twenty volumes and —— written by different men.
21. Fifty dollars a month —— paid by the government to the widow of the colonel.
22. Ten minutes —— spent in a writing exercise.
23. —— either of you going to the village?
24. Our happiness or our sorrow —— largely due to our own actions.
25. The guidance as well as the love of a mother —— wanting.
26. Every one of these books —— mine.
27. General Custer with his whole force —— massacred by Indians.
28. Three times three —— nine.
29. Nearly three hundred yards of the track —— under water.
30. To admit the existence of God and then to refuse to worship him —— inconsistent.
31. The ebb and flow of the tides —— caused by the attraction of the moon.
32. Six dollars a week —— all he earns.
33. Nine-tenths of his time —— wasted.
34. Three quarts of oats —— enough for a horse's meal.
35. "Tales of a Wayside Inn" —— written by Longfellow.
36. The rest of the Republican ticket —— elected.


Which of the italicized forms is preferable?—
1. A variety of pleasing objects charm (charms) the eye.
2. Already a train or two has (have) come in.
3. Each day and each hour bring (brings) contrary blessings.
4. The Senate has (have) adjourned.
5. No monstrous height, or length, or breadth appear (appears).
6. I am the general who command (commands) you.
7. Many a captain with all his crew has (have) been lost at sea.
8. The jury who (which) was (were) out all night has (have) just returned a verdict.
9. He dare (dares) not touch a hair of Catiline.
10. The ambition and activity of this railroad has (have) done much towards the civilization of the world.
11. Thackeray's "English Humorists" treat (treats) not of the writings of the humorists so much as of their characters and lives.
12. Addison was one of the best writers that has (have) ever lived.
13. This is one of the books that give (gives) me pleasure.
14. Give me one of the books that is (are) lying on the table.
15. This is one of the most important questions that has (have) come up.
16. Nothing but vain and foolish pursuits delight (delights) some persons.
17. Six months' interest is (are) due.
18. You are not the first one that has (have) been deceived in that way.
19. My room is one of those that overlook (overlooks) the garden.
20. A committee was (were) appointed to investigate the matter.
21. The greater part of the audience was (were) pleased.
22. The public is (are) respectfully invited.
23. The jury was (were) not unanimous.
24. Generation after generation pass (passes) away.
25. A glimpse of gable roof and red chimneys add (adds) far more to the beauty of such a scene than could the grandest palace.
26. The society hold (holds) their (its) meetings weekly.
27. What is (are) the gender, the number, and the person of the following words?
28. He made one of the best speeches that has (have) been delivered before the school.
29. He is one of those persons who is (are) quick to take offence.
30. This (these) scanty data is (are) all we have.
31. If the meaning of these passages is not carefully explained, some of the congregation may think that Matthew or Paul is (are) guilty of some unorthodox opinions.

Misused Verbs.—See the remarks under "Misused Nouns."


Accredit, credit.—'To accredit means 'to invest with credit or authority,'[91] or 'to send with letters credential;' to credit means 'to believe,'[92] or "to put to the credit of."

Arise, rise.—"The choice between these words was primarily, and still often is, a matter of rhythm [euphony]. The literal meanings, however, or those which seem literal, have become more associated with rise, and the consciously figurative with arise: as, he rose from the chair; the sun rose; the provinces rose in revolt: trouble arose; 'music arose with its voluptuous swell.'"[93]

Captivate, capture.To captivate means "to fascinate"; to capture, "to take prisoner."

Depreciate, deprecate.To depreciate means "to bring down in value," "to disparage;" to deprecate means "to argue earnestly against" or "to express regret for."

Impugn, Impute.—To impugn means "to call in question;" to impute means "to ascribe to."

Loan, lend.—The use of loan as a verb is not sanctioned by good use. Properly the word is a noun. A loan is money which a person lends.

[91] "Foundations," p. 109.
[92] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 38.
[93] The Century Dictionary.


Tell the difference in meaning between

1. The Amazon captivated (captured) our hero.
2. The king depreciated (deprecated) Napoleon's effort to raise a new army.
3. The readiness with which men impute (impugn) motives is much to be regretted.


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your choice:—

Accredit, credit.
1. Mr. Lowell was ——ed as Minister Plenipotentiary to England.
2. These reasons will —— his opinion.
3. He did not —— the strange report.
4. The contribution of five dollars previously ——ed to Mr. Williams came from Mr. Brown.
5. Mr. Sherman is well ——ed as a writer on finance.
6. The bank has not ——ed me with the interest on the deposit.

Arise, rise.
7. The court —— at four o'clock.
8. At the discharge of a gun whole flocks of quail would ——.
9. The idea of a reward did not —— in his mind.
10. Most of these appalling accidents —— from negligence.
11. The men —— against their officers.
12. Other cases of mutiny may ——.

Captivate, capture.
13. Her husband was ——d in the battle of Gettysburg.
14. Mr. S. was ——d by the young widow's beauty.
15. Let us attack them now and try to —— the whole squad.
16. It is not merely what Chaucer has to say, but even more the agreeable way he has of saying it, that ——s our attention and gives him an assured place in literature.

Depreciate, deprecate.
17. Financial panics are likely to follow a—d currency.
18. His purpose was—d by all who knew it.
19. Both parties—war.
20. It is natural for those who have not succeeded to—the work of those who have.
21. He—s his daughter's desire to earn her own living.
22. An injurious consequence of asceticism was a tendency to—the character and the position of woman.

Impugn, impute.
23. We cannot deny the conclusion of a proposition of Euclid without—ing the axioms which are the basis of its demonstration.
24. The gentleman—s my honesty.
25. The power of fortune is confessed only by the miserable, for the happy—all their success to prudence and merit.
26. Mr.X. is uncharitable; he always—s bad motives.


Antagonize, oppose.—To antagonize means properly "to struggle against," "to oppose actively," or "to counteract." "In England, antagonizing forces must be of the same kind, but in the political phraseology of the United States a person may antagonize (i.e., oppose) a measure."[95]

Calculate, intend.—To calculate means properly "to compute mathematically," or "to adjust or adapt" for something. In the sense of intend it is not in good use.

Carry, bring, fetch.—To carry means "to take along in going;" to bring means "to take along in coming;" to fetch means "to go, get, and bring."

Champion, support.—The word champion is very much overworked, being often used in the general sense of "support." It should be restricted to cases in which there is the idea of entering the lists as champion of a cause.

Claim, assert, allege, maintain, declare, affirm, state.—To claim means properly "to demand as one's own or one's due." It is often loosely used, especially in the United States, for "assert," "allege," "maintain," "declare," or "affirm." To assert is "to say or declare in the face of implied denial or doubt." To allege is "to assert without proof." To maintain is "to uphold by argument." To declare is "to say publicly, clearly, or emphatically." To affirm is "to assert on one's reputation for knowledge or truthfulness." To state, which is also often misused in the sense of "say," "assert," "allege," "declare," or "affirm," means properly "to express formally and in detail;" it always implies detail. (See "Foundations," pp. 113, 114, and "Practical Exercises," p. 99.)

Confess, admit.—"Admit, in cases into which the idea of confession does not enter, is preferable to confess. On grounds of idiom, however, 'I must confess' and the parenthetical 'I confess' are exempt from the operation of this rule."[96]

Demand, ask.To demand means "to ask for with authority or with insistence." The use of "demand" in the sense of "ask" is borrowed, possibly, from the French use of demander.

Hire, let, lease.To hire means "to obtain the use of;" to let, "to give the use of." To lease means "to give the use of by lease." The owner of a house leases it; the person who occupies it takes a lease of it.

Learn, teach.Learn means to "acquire" knowledge, not to "impart" it. In the latter sense the proper word is teach.

"I have more information to-day than I had before," said Mr. Sheehan.

"This has learned you something," said Mr. Goff.

"Oh no," replied Mr. Sheehan, "it has taught me something."[97]

Like, love.Like and love differ greatly in strength or warmth, and may differ in kind. Like may be feeble and cool, and it never has the intensity of love. We may like or even love a person; we only like the most palatable kind of food. With an infinitive, like is the common word, love being appropriate only in the hyperbole of poetical or rhetorical feeling.[98]

Materialize, appear.To materialize properly means "to make or to become physically perceptible;" as, "by means of letters we materialize our ideas and make them as lasting as ink and paper;" "the ideas of the sculptor materialize in marble."

Plead, argue.—See plea, argument, p. 29.

Stay, stop.—"Stay, as in 'At what hotel are you staying?' is preferable to stop, since stop also means 'to stop without staying.'"[99]

Transpire, happen.To transpire means properly "to escape from secrecy to notice," "to leak out;" it should not be used in the sense of to happen.

[94] "Foundations," pp. 110-114.
[95] Murray's Dictionary.
[96] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 18.
[97] Newspaper report.
[98] See the Century Dictionary.
[99] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


Tell the difference in meaning between—

1. Please bring (fetch) a chair from the next room.
2. You had better carry (bring) an umbrella with you.
3. He asserts (alleges, maintains, declares, affirms, says) that he has been robbed.
4. Mr. A. stated (declared) his opinion.
5. He admits (confesses) the fault.
6. The grocer asks for (demands) his money.
7. He has let (hired) the boat for the afternoon.
8. We have leased (taken a lease of) the cottage.
9. He is learning (teaching) the alphabet.
10. Dorothy likes (loves) Helen.
11. Washington stayed (stopped) at this house on his way to Philadelphia.
12. It transpired (happened) that we disagreed.


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

Antagonize, oppose.
1. Ex-Secretary Windom ——d ex-Secretary Sherman's bill.
2. The body is balanced by an incessant shifting of the muscles, one group ——ing the other.
3. I am too weak to —— your cunning.

Calculate, intend.
4. To-morrow he ——s to hunt the boar.
5. Bradley was able to —— the velocity of light.
6. He ——s to go.

Carry, fetch, bring.
7. Farmers —— their potatoes to market.
8. What shall I —— you from Paris?
9. Harry, please —— a chair from the hall.
10. Go to the flock and —— me two young lambs.
11. The Spartan was to —— his shield home, or to be borne home on it.
12. When he dieth, he shall —— nothing away.

Champion, support.
13. The Republican party ——ed this measure.
14. He ——ed the policy of the administration.
15. Gareth ——ed the cause of Lynette in the combats with the craven knights.

Claim, assert, allege, maintain, declare, affirm, state, say.
16. The heavens —— the glory of God.
17. Rhoda constantly ——d that it was even so.
18. I have endeavored to —— nothing but what I have good authority for.
19. Nay, if my Lord ——d that black was white,
My word was this, your honour's in the right.
20. She ——s her innocence in the strongest terms.
21. I will —— what He hath done for my soul.
22. What if Nemesis —— repayment?
23. It is not directly ——d, but it seems to be implied.
24. That such a report existed in Claudian's time cannot now be ——d.
25. Geologists —— that before there were men on earth this immense gulf was a forest.
26. He fared on in haste to —— his kingdom.
27. Will Mr. L. —— his reasons for disagreeing with the rest of the committee?
28. He ——s that he will not come.
29. Both sides —— the victory.
30. There is another point which ——s our attention.
31. He ——d that he had been robbed by A., but he showed no proofs.
32. He ——s that the thief attacked him on Third Street.
33. Please —— all the particulars of the disaster.
34. The woman ——s that she left Bangor Thursday night, and was put off the train at Hermon for not paying her fare.

Confess, admit.
35. He ——s that his opponent is a good man.
36. I —— that I spoke too hastily.
37. I —— that John was a thief.
38. Every man must —— that he has occasional fits of bad temper.
39. The problem, I ——, is difficult.

Demand, ask.
40. He ——s why I will not go with him.
41. The highwayman ——ed their purses.
42. The pound of flesh which I—— of him I dearly bought; 'tis mine, and I will have it.
43. He ——ed the way to Chester.

Hire, let, lease.
44. Boats to ——; twenty-five cents an hour.
45. We will —— our country-house during the winter.
46. —— us some fair chamber for the night.
47. Bathing suits to ——.

Like, love.
48. I —— to go rowing.
49. He ——s to talk of the days before the war.
50. All children —— their mothers.
51. She ——s her blue gown.
52. Don't you ——strawberry short-cake?
53. A maid whom there were none to praise And very few to ——.

Materialize, appear.
54. The representatives of the other colleges did not ——.
55. His hopes have not ——ed.

Stay, stop.
56. The King of Denmark ——s there during the summer.
57. —— a few moments longer.
58. She is very kind to ask me to —— overnight.
59. I am very tired; let us —— here and rest.
60. I've been ——ing with my mother for a week.

Transpire, happen, elapse.
61. After a considerable time had ——d, he returned to the office. 62. Silas takes an interest in everything that ——s.
63. Presently it ——d that Henry Roscoe was the obstinate juryman.
64. Many things have ——d since the war was ended.


Accept, except.To accept means "to take something offered;" to except means "to make an exception of."

Advertise, advise.To advertise is "to announce to the public" to advise is "to give counsel or information to a person."

Affect, effect.To affect is "to act upon," "to influence;" to effect is "to bring about."

Alleviate, relieve.To alleviate pain is "to lighten" it; to relieve it is to go further, and "to remove it in a large measure or altogether."

Allow, admit, think.Allow properly means to "grant" or "permit," not to "admit," "think" or "intend."

Allude to, refer to, mention.—We mention a thing when we name it directly. We refer to it when we speak of it less directly. We allude to it when we refer to it in a delicate or slight way.

Argue, augur.To argue is "to bring forward reasons;" to augur is "to foretell," "to forebode."

Compare with, compare to, contrast.—"Two things are compared in order to note the points of resemblance and difference between them; they are contrasted in order to note the points of difference only. When one thing is compared to another, it is to show that the first is like the second; when one thing is compared with another, it is to show either difference or similarity, especially difference."[102]

Construe, construct.—"To construe means 'to interpret,' 'to show the meaning;' to construct means 'to build;' we may construe a sentence as in translation, or construct it as in composition."[103]

Convince, convict.—"To convince is 'to satisfy the understanding;' to convict, 'to pronounce guilty.' 'The jury having been convinced of the prisoner's guilt, he was convicted.'"

Detect, discriminate.To detect is "to find out;" to discriminate is "to distinguish between."

Disclose, discover.—To disclose is "to uncover," "to reveal;" to discover is, in modern usage, "to find."

Dominate, domineer.To dominate is "to rule;" to domineer is "to rule in an overbearing manner."

Drive, ride.—We go driving in carriages, riding in saddles. We drive behind horses, we ride on them.

Eliminate, elicit.To eliminate is "to remove," "to get rid of;" to elicit is "to draw out."

Estimate, esteem.To estimate is "to judge the value of;" to esteem is "to set a high value on," especially of persons.

Expose, expound.To expose is "to lay bare to view;" to expound is "to explain the meaning of."

Frighten.Frighten is a transitive verb, and is used correctly in "The locomotive frightened the horse;" "The horse was frightened by the locomotive;" "The horse became frightened." It should not be used intransitively, as in the sentence "The horse frightened at the locomotive."

Inquire, investigate.—To inquire is "to ask for information;" to investigate is "to make a thorough examination."

Insure, secure.Secure, in the sense of "to guard from danger," "to make safe," is preferable to insure, since insure also means "to guarantee indemnity for future loss or damage."

Let, leave.Let means "to permit;" leave, "to let remain," or "to go away from."

Locate, find.Locate properly means "to place in a particular position," or "to designate the site of," as of a new building or purchased lands; it does not mean to find.

Persuade, advise.To persuade is "to induce," "to convince;" to advise is "to give counsel or information."

Predicate, predict.To predicate is "to affirm as an attribute or quality;" to predict is "to foretell."

Prescribe, proscribe.To prescribe is "to lay down as a rule or a remedy;" to proscribe is "to condemn to death or to loss of rights."

Purpose, propose.—"The verb purpose, in the sense of 'intend,' is preferable to propose, since to propose also means 'to offer for consideration:' the noun answering to the former is purpose; to the latter, proposal or proposition."[104]

Repulse, repel.Repulse usually implies hostility; repel is a milder term. We repulse an enemy or an assailant; we repel an officious person or the unwelcome advances of a lover.

Start, begin, commence.—To start is "to set out" or "to set going," and is not followed by an infinitive. Before an infinitive, "begin" or "commence" is used. "Begin is preferred in ordinary use; commence has more formal associations with law and procedure, combat, divine service, and ceremonial."[105]

Suspect, expect, anticipate.—To suspect is "to mistrust," "to surmise." Expect, in the sense of "look forward to," is preferable to anticipate, since anticipate also means "take up, perform, or realize beforehand;" as, "Some real lives do actually anticipate the happiness of heaven."

[100] In some of the sentences one verb or another is allowable, according to the meaning intended.
[101] "Foundations," p. 115.
[102] The Century Dictionary.
[103] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 38.
[104] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[105] Murray's Dictionary.


Tell the difference in meaning between

1. I accept (except) him.
2. Telegraphic communication was affected (effected).
3. The medicine alleviated (relieved) her suffering.
4. He alluded to (referred to, mentioned) the battle of Gettysburg.
5. The first sentence was not well construed (constructed).
6. Mr. Fox was convinced (convicted).
7. Blanche of Devon disclosed (discovered) the treachery of Murdock.
8. We are going riding (driving) this afternoon.
9. He rides (drives) well.
10. I will inquire about (investigate) the business methods of the building association.
11. The furniture has been secured (insured).
12. Let (leave) me alone.
13. He advised (persuaded) me to have my life insured.
14. He purposed (proposed) to divide the class.
15. Did you suspect (expect) us?


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your choice:—[106]

Accept, except.
1. Let us —— the terms which they propose.
2. In saying that the Alexandrians have a bad character, I —— a few persons.
3. Why did you not —— the gift?
4. He was ——ed from the general condemnation.
5. It gives me pleasure to —— your invitation.

Advertise, advise.
6. The procession was ——d to start at half-past two o'clock.
7. Under these circumstances we —— total abstinence.
8. The merchants were ——d of the risk.
9. When I return, I shall —— you.

Affect, effect.
10. She was greatly ——ed by the news.
11. When a man is hardened in crime, no fear can —— him.
12. They sailed away without ——ing their purpose.
13. What he planned, he ——ed.
14. Bodily exercise indirectly ——s all the organs of the body.
15. The loud crash ——ed my hearing for a while.
16. Severe cold will —— peach-trees.
17. The invention of the telephone was not ——ed without great labor.

Alleviate, relieve.
18. Some fruits are excellent to —— thirst.
19. He gave me an opiate to —— my pain.
20. His charity went far to —— the wants of the poor.
21. My cares were ——ed by his friendship.

Allow, admit, think.
22. He ——(ed) it would rain to-day.
23. He would not —— her to come.
24. I —— she will come.
25. He at last ——s that I was right.

Allude to, refer to, mention.
26. A Latin inscription ——ing (to) the name of the road is cut on the rock.
27. The people of the country, ——ing (to) the whiteness of its foam, call the cascade "Sour-milk Falls."
28. I proceed to another affection of our nature which bears strong testimony to our being born for religion. I —— (to) the emotion which leads us to revere what is higher than we.
29. He ——s (to) enterprises which he cannot reveal but with the hazard of his life.

Argue, augur.
30. It ——s ill for an army when there are dissensions at headquarters.
31. Not to know me ——s yourself unknown.
32. E'en though vanquished he could —— still.

Compare to, compare with, contrast.
33. The generosity of one person is most strongly felt when ——d to (with) the meanness of another.
34. In Luke xv. the sinner is ——d to (with) a sheep.
35. Solon ——d the people to (with) the sea, and orators to (with) the winds; because the sea would be quiet if the winds did not trouble it.
36. It appears no unjust simile to —— the affairs of this great continent to (with) the mechanism of a clock.
37. Goethe ——s translators to (with) carriers who convey good wine to market, though it gets unaccountably watered by the way.
38. To —— the goodness of God to (with) our rebellion will tend to make us humble and thankful.
39. He who ——s his own condition to (with) that of others will see that he has many reasons to consider himself fortunate.
40. The treatment of the Indians by Penn may be ——d to (with)
the treatment of them by other colonists.
41. Burke ——s the parks of a city to (with) the lungs of the body.

Construe, construct.
42. We might —— his words in a bad sense.
43. How is this passage in Virgil to be ——d?
44. That sentence is obscure; it is not well ——ed.

Convince, convict.
45. The jury, having been ——d of the prisoner's guilt, ——d him.
46. I hope you may succeed in ——ing him of his error.

Detect, discriminate.
47. I cannot —— the error in the account.
48. The chemist ——d the presence of arsenic in the coffee.

Discover, disclose.
49. Events have ——d the designs of the government.
50. We often —— our mistakes when it is too late.

Dominate, domineer.
51. Three powers there are that —— the world: Fraud, Force, and Right.
52. No true gentleman ——s his servants.

Drive, ride.
53. While Mrs. A. and her children were ——ing in the park the horses ran away and overturned the carriage.
54. Will you go ——ing with me in my new pony-cart.
55. While ——ing in the park Mr. C. was thrown from his horse.

Elicit, eliminate.
56. Discussion is a good way to —— truth.
57. His bearing under the trying circumstances ——d the approval of all high-minded men.
58. It is the duty of a statesman to try to —— the worst elements of society and to retain the best.
59. Let us try to —— the true facts from this mass of evidence.

Estimate, esteem.
60. I —— him for his own sake.
61. Men do not —— highly the virtues of their enemies.
62. The shell of the hawksbill turtle is much ——d for making combs.
63. At what amount do you —— the cost of the journey.

Expose, expound.
64. Daniel Webster ——d the Constitution of the United States.
65. Daniel Webster ——d the villany of the Knapps.
66. The text was well ——d in the sermon.
67. It is the business of the police to —— vice.

Insure, secure.
68. Will you —— my factory against fire?
69. For woods before and hills behind
—it both from rain and wind.
70. The cargoes of ocean steamers are generally fully ——d.
71. The city is ——d by strong fortifications.
72. How are we to —— to labor its due honor?
73. To enjoy the benefits which the liberty of the press ——s, we must submit to the evils which it creates.

Investigate, Inquire.
74. A committee was appointed to —— the needs of the laboring classes.
75. I will —— his name and rank.
76. Edison has been busy —— ing the nature of electricity.
77. A commission was appointed to —— the causes of the strike.

Let, leave.
78. Please —— me take you to town.
79. We —— that to the judgment of the umpire.
80. Pharaoh said, "I will —— you go."
81. Why do you—- your house go to ruin?
82. Peace I —— with you.
83. I will —— you know my decision to-morrow.
84. Please —— me out at the corner of Twenty-third Street.
85. —— us free to act.
86. —— go!
87. —— the beggar in.
88. —— us —— him to himself.
89. He —— the cat out of the bag.

Locate, find.
90. The missing man has at last been ——d by the police in Kansas City.
91. The part of the city in which the mint is ——d.

Persuade, advise.
92. Almost thou ——st me to be a Christian.
93. I ——d him to take a walk every day, but I could not —— him to do it.
94. Columbus was ——d to give up the thought of sailing westward in search of the Indies.
95. When in mid-ocean, Columbus was ——d to alter his course.

Predicate, predict.
96. This very result was ——d two years ago.
97. Ambition may be ——d us the predominant trait in Napoleon's character.
98. He ——s that the month of July will be rainy.
99. Disaster to the voyage was ——d by the enemies of Columbus.

Prescribe, proscribe.
100. Sylla and Marius ——d each other's adherents.
101. The doctor ——d quinine in doses of four grains each.
102. It is easier to —— principles of conduct than to follow them.
103. The Puritans ——d theatres.
104. The number of electors is ——d by law.

Purpose, propose.
105. I don't —— to let you escape so easily.
106. I —— that we go boating.
107. We —— d to go to-morrow, but I fear the rain will prevent us.
108. I —— to work hard this year.
109. Bassanio ——d to pay the bond thrice over, but Shylock declined the
offer, for he ——d, if possible, to lake Antonio's life.

Repulse, repel.
110. He gently —— their entreaties.
111. The charge of Pickett's troops at Gettysburg was ——d.

Start, begin, commence.
112. Rosalind tells Orlando to —— his courtship, and he wishes to ——
with a kiss.
113. The Spectator was ——(d) by Steele.
114. We have ——(d) Homer's "Iliad."
115. We have ——(d) to find out our ignorance.
116. We ——d to feel that perhaps Darcy is not very bad, after all.
117. We ——(d) in an omnibus at seven o'clock.
118. She has ——(d) to study French.
119. Franklin's voyage was ——(d) under unpleasant circumstances.
120. It ——(d) to rain in torrents.
121. The play has ——(d).
122. Hostilities have ——(d).
123. The people of Philadelphia were so much pleased with Franklin's
pavement that they ——(d) paving all the streets.

Suspect, expect, anticipate.
124. I —— that my grandfather was a wild lad.
125. I —— great pleasure from our association in this work.
126. The burglars —— that detectives are on their tracks, but they —— to
elude the officers by hiding in the country.
127. I was determined to —— their fury by first falling into a passion
128. I —— that my father will come on a late train to-night.
129. I —— that the rogue thinks himself safe from detection.
130. The death of the general is hourly ——ed.

[106] In some of the sentences one verb or another is allowable, according to the meaning intended.


Tell why the italicized words in the following sentences are misused, and
substitute for them better expressions

1. The death of his son greatly effected him.
2. The Prince of Wales does not propose to send a challenge to the owner of the yacht Puritan.
3. He is learning me to ride a bicycle.
4. I cannot predicate what may hereafter happen.
5. Will you loan me your sled for this afternoon?
6. It is even stated on the best of authority that the Minneapolis is capable of attaining a speed of twenty-four knots an hour, and of keeping it up.
7. Miss Duhe claims that the clairvoyant divulged many things that were known to her only.
8. It is evident that whatever transpired during the interview was informal and private.
9. There is little in the "Elegy" to locate the church-yard which is referred to.
10. He says he cannot except the invitation.
11. Is the Governor's wife stopping at the Springs Hotel?
12. Dr. H.'s well-known views have led him to champion the cause of Dr. B.
13. I do not propose to disrespect[107] the Sabbath.
14. Macaulay says Voltaire gestured[107] like a monkey.
15. I love to see kittens play.
16. I expect he must have arrived last night.
17. I calculate it will rain soon.
18. This dry weather argues ill for the corn crop.
19. Mrs. Dennett broke open the door, and found a startling state of affairs. In the hallway her daughter Grace was lying prostrate, and seemed to be in an unconscious state. She awoke her daughter, who, after she had regained her senses, related what had transpired.
20. Elizabeth allowed that he had given a very rational account of it.
21. He calculates to go to-morrow morning.
22. The Abbe was beheaded, not hung.
23. I am looking for a fault which I cannot exactly locate.
24. James W. Reed, who mysteriously disappeared several weeks ago, has been located in England.
25. I expect you feel tired after your long walk.
26. The strike of the tailors, which it was claimed would transpire yesterday, failed to materialize.
27. Do you allow to go to town to-day?
28. She tried to locate the places whence the sounds came.
29. Floods in all directions. Middle and New England States enjoy their annual freshets.[108]
30. I had hard work to restrain[107] from taking some.

[107] Consult a dictionary.
[108] Heading in a newspaper.


Illustrate by original sentences the proper use of each of these verbs:—

Allow, learn, leave, let, loan, locate, accede, accredit, credit, arise, rise, captivate, depreciate, deprecate, impugn, impute, like, love, antagonize, champion, calculate, bring, carry, fetch, claim, assert, allege, maintain, admit, confess, demand, hire, let, lease, materialize, plead, argue, state, stop, transpire, accept, except, advertise, advise, affect, effect, alleviate, relieve, augur, compare to, compare with, contrast, construe, construct, convince, convict, detect, discriminate, disclose, discover, dominate, domineer, drive, ride, eliminate, elicit, insure, secure, esteem, estimate, expose, expound, investigate, persuade, convince, predicate, predict, prescribe, proscribe, purpose, propose, repulse, start, suspect, expect, anticipate.

[109] See Note to Teacher, p. 41.



An Adjective is a word joined by way of description or limitation to a noun or a pronoun.

An Adverb is a word joined by way of limitation or emphasis to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Vulgarisms.[110]—Every educated person is expected to know the correct use of the following words:—

Good, well.Good is an adjective: the adverb corresponding to it is well. We say, "He had a good sleep;" "He slept well." Well is sometimes an adjective, as in "You look well."

Likely, probably, like.Likely is now used as an adjective only, except in the phrase "As likely as not;" ad the corresponding adverb is probably. We say, "He is likely to come;" "He will probably come." Like as an adjective means "similar," as, "Men of like excellence;" "He looks like his grandfather;" "He was a man of like passions as we are." In the sense of "in the same manner as" like is followed by a noun or a pronoun in the objective case, and is called by some an adverb, by others a preposition: as, "He talks like her."

Less, fewer, smaller.Less refers to quantity, fewer to number, smaller to size.

Most, almost.Most denotes "the greatest number, quantity, or degree." It is always superlative and never means "nearly," which is the proper meaning of almost. We say, "Most of the boys are here; the time has almost come."

Near, nearly.Near is an adjective; the corresponding adverb is nearly.

Plenty is now in good use as a noun only, as "Plenty of corn and wine."[111] Shakespeare used the word as an adjective in "Reasons as plenty as blackberries," but this use is obsolete. The use of plenty as an adverb, as "The food is plenty good enough," is a vulgarism.

Some, somewhat, something.Some is an adjective, as, "Some water;" "Some brighter clime." Somewhat is an adverb, as, "He is somewhat better." "Somewhat" is occasionally used as a noun, as, "Somewhat of doubt remains," but in this sense something is more common.

This, these; that, those.This (plural these) and that (plural those) are the only adjectives in English that have distinct forms for the plural. A common mistake is to use the plural forms with singular collective nouns, as "kind," "class," "sort."

First, second, secondly, etc.—First is both adjective and adverb. Second, third etc., are adjectives only; the corresponding adverbs are secondly, thirdly, etc. Firstly is a vulgarism.

Everywheres, illy, lesser, light-complected, muchly, nowhere near, unbeknown are not in reputable use.

[110] "Foundations," pp. 118-120.
[111] See page 32.


Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your choice:—

Good, well.

1. George played —— in the football game this afternoon; he is a —— runner.
2. She embroiders very ——.
3. The draperies do not hang as —— as I thought they would.
4. Your coat fits you very ——.
5. He always behaves ——.
6. This pen will not write ——.
7. He did the work as —— as I could expect.
8. This is a —— picture; the artist paints ——.
9. Mr. A. is a —— workman. See how —— he has laid this hearth.
10. George writes ——.
11. Charles does not look —— to-day.
12. He says he does not feel ——.

Likely, probably, like.
13. It became evident that the duke was not —— to have his own way in the assembly.
14. There is a difference between what may possibly and what may —— be done.
15. Just as —— as not you will meet him on the road.
16. He is —— to die of hunger.
17. He will —— die of hunger.
18. It seems —— that he will be elected.
19. —— he will be elected.
20. Japan will —— defeat China..
21. If a man does not care for himself, it is not —— that he will care much for others.
22. They are as —— as two peas.
23. Tell me who is married, and who is —— to be.
24. This is a —— story.
25. As —— as not you love her yourself.

Less, fewer, smaller.
26. A proper fraction is —— than a unit, because it expresses —— parts than a unit contains.
27. I caught seven fish; Carl caught a —— number.
28. Look for no —— punishment than death.
29. I saw not —— than twenty beggars to-day.
30. Rebellion is sometimes a —— evil than endurance.
31. Not —— than twelve banks in New York failed to-day.
32. We have —— than a half a ton of coal left.
33. People who live in the country have —— things to talk about than city people.
34. He received —— good than he conferred.
35. I have —— books than you.
36. There were —— people there than I expected.

Most, almost.
37. I have —— finished my lesson.
38. You will find me in my office —— any day.
39. —— men dread death.
40. We come here —— every summer.
41. We have —— done.
42. This wheat is —— too thick.
43. Though I saw —— everything else, I failed to see Hagenbeck's trained animals.
44. —— everybody has imperfect eyes.
45. The old man's strength is —— gone.
46. —— boys like play.
47. It rains in some places —— every day.
48. —— all flowers are beautiful.

Near, nearly.
49. It isn't —— finished yet.
50. We are —— the end of the lesson.
51. I am —— suffocated.
52. We are not —— through our work.
53. He is not —— so young as I.
54. I will answer you as —— as I can remember.
55. We are —— the end of the term; our school-days are —— over.
56. Mr. Patterson came very —— breaking the greatest record ever made in America.

Some, somewhat, something.
57. Thank you, I feel —— better this morning.
58. —— attempted, —— done, has earned a night's repose.
59. He resembles his father ——.
60. She felt —— encouraged by this (these) news.
61. —— evil beast hath devoured him.
62. He knows —— of Arabic.
63. We came back —— sooner than we intended.
64. If a man thinketh himself to be —— when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.
65. Dorothy looks —— like her mother.
66. Yes, I'm —— frightened, I admit.
67. It provoked me ——.
68. A widow, —— old, and very poor.

This, these; that, those.
69. You will always see —— kind of man lounging in front of taverns.
70. Take up —— ashes.
71. —— pile of clothes is (are) to be carried to the laundry.
72. —— kind of tree is (are) common in Pennsylvania.
73. —— brass tongs cost three dollars.
74. —— class will be graduated in June.
75. In New England there is not one country-house in fifty which has not its walls ornamented with half a score of poems of —— sort.
76. How do you like —— style of shoe?
77. Do you like —— sort of pen?
78. —— sort of person is always entertaining.
79. Look at —— assortment of knives.
80. Beware of —— kind of dog.
81. Problems of —— sort are very easy to solve.
82. Young ladies should let —— sort of thing alone.

First, second, secondly, etc.
83. I shall —— show why we should worship God, and —— explain how we should worship him.
84. Adam was formed ——, then Eve.
85. Let us consider —— what the young ruler desired; —— what he had; —— what he lacked.
86. My —— proposition is that the measure is unnecessary; my —— that it is unjust; my —— that it is unconstitutional.
87. I will not lie; I will die ——.
88. I like the old English ballads because, ——, they are very quaint; ——, they show the derivations of many of our words; and, ——, they show different steps which our language has taken in becoming what it is.

Adjective or Adverb.[112]—Illiterate persons often forget that adjectives go with nouns and pronouns, but adverbs with verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Even cultivated persons are sometimes in doubt whether to use an adjective or an adverb after certain verbs, as "grow," "look," "sound," "smell," "taste." If the added word applies to the subject of the verb, it should be an adjective; if to the verb, it should be an adverb. We say "We feel warm" when we mean that we are warm; we say "We feel warmly on this subject," when we mean that our feeling is warm. "As a rule, it is proper to use an adjective whenever some form of the verb 'to be' or 'to seem' may be substituted for the verb, an adverb when no such substitution can be made."[113] Thus, "He looked angry; he spoke angrily." Sometimes we may use either adjective or adverb with no difference in meaning: as, "We were sitting quiet (quietly) round the fire."

Regarding the form of adverbs, ill-taught pupils often suppose that all words ending in "-ly" are adverbs, and that all adverbs end in "-ly." A glance at the italicized words in the following expressions will remove this delusion: "Come here;" "very pretty;" "he then rose;" "lay it lengthwise;" "he fell backward;" "run fast;" "now it is done;" "a friendly Indian;" "a buzzing fly." Though no comprehensive rule can be given for the form of adverbs, which must be learned for the most part by observation, it may be helpful to know that most "adjectives of quality," like gentle, true, take the suffix "-ly" to make a corresponding adverb; and that the comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs ending in "-ly" usually prefix more and most.

[112] "Foundations," pp. 120-128.
[113] Ibid., p. 121.


1. Write careful (carefully).
2. His teacher spoke cold (coldly) to him after she found he had acted dishonorable (dishonorably).
3. Speak slow (slowly) and distinct (distinctly).
4. He behaved bad (badly).
5. He is a remarkable (remarkably) good shot.
6. They were in a terrible (terribly) dangerous position.
7. I am only tolerable (tolerably) well, sir.
8. He acted very different (differently) from his brother.
9. It is discouraging to see how bad (badly) the affairs of our nation are sometimes managed.
10. He writes plainer (more plainly) than he once did.
11. You are exceeding (exceedingly) kind.
12. He struggled manful (manfully) against the waves.
13. You have been wrong (wrongly) informed.
14. Sure (surely) he is a fine gentleman.
15. She dresses suitable (suitably) to her station.
16. That part of the work was managed easy (easily) enough.
17. You behaved very proper (properly).
18. I can read easier (more easily) than I can write.
19. She knew her lesson perfect (perfectly) to-day.
20. I live free (freely) from care.
21. Lessons are easiest (most easily) learned in the morning.
22. Walk as quiet (quietly) as you can.
23. He acted independent (independently).
24. He spoke quite decided (decidedly).
25. We ought to value our privileges higher (more highly).
26. He was ill (illy) equipped for the journey.[114]
27. Relative (relatively) to its size, an ant is ten times stronger than a man.
28. That will ill (illy) accord with my notions.[114]
29. He is an exceeding (exceedingly) good boy.
30. One can scarce (scarcely) help smiling at the blindness of this critic.
31. I had studied grammar previous (previously) to his instructing me, but to no purpose.

[114] See page 110.


Distinguish between—
1. We found the way easy (easily).
2. The prunes are boiling soft (softly).
3. He appeared prompt (promptly).
4. It looks good (well).
5. We arrived safe (safely).


Which of the italicized words is preferable? Give the reason:—
1. Velvet feels smooth (smoothly).
2. Clouds sail slow (slowly) through the air.
3. This carriage rides easy (easily).
4. How sweet (sweetly) these roses smell!
5. They felt very bad (badly) at being beaten.[115]
6. Your piano sounds different (differently) from ours.
7. The storm is raging furious (furiously).
8. This milk tastes sour (sourly).
9. The soldiers fought gallant (gallantly).
10. She looked cold (coldly) on his offer of marriage.
11. Ethel looks sweet (sweetly) in a white gown.
12. How beautiful (beautifully) the stars appear to-night!
13. This coat goes on easy (easily).
14. How beautiful (beautifully) Katharine looks this morning.
15. Luther stood firm (firmly) in spite of abuse.
16. It looks strange (strangely) to see you here.
17. Deal gentle (gently) with them.
18. The cry sounded shrill (shrilly).
19. Larks sing sweet (sweetly).
20. He felt awkward (awkwardly) in the presence of ladies.
21. He has acted strange (strangely).
22. The water feels warm (warmly).
23. We feel warm (warmly) on that subject.
24. The dead warrior looked fierce (fiercely).
25. The wind blows very cold (coldly) to-day.
26. War clouds rolling dim (dimly).
27. The shutters are painted green (greenly).
28. She works good (well) and neat (neatly).
29. Protestants believe that the bread of the Lord's supper is not real (really) changed, but remains real (really) bread.
30. Homer says the blood of the gods is not real (really) blood, but only something like it.
31. Real (really) kings hide away their crowns in their wardrobes, and affect a plain and poor exterior.

Alone, only.—"In the Bible and earlier English alone is often used for the adverb only, but it is now becoming restricted to its own sense of 'solitary,' 'unaccompanied by other persons or things';"[116] as, "He rode all unarmed, and he rode all alone." Only is both adjective and adverb.

[115] See "Foundations," p. 121.
[116] The Century Dictionary.


Fill each blank with the proper word ("only," "alone"):—

1. She —— of all the family had courage to go —— into that darkened room.
2. These books are sold in sets ——.
3. Man cannot live on bread ——.
4. This fault —— is enough to make her disagreeable.
5. By chance —— did he escape the gallows.
6. Not —— at Ephesus, but throughout all Asia, Paul persuaded many people.
7. To be successful a school paper must be supported, not —— with subscriptions, but also with contributions.

Omitted Adverbs.[117]—Adverbs necessary to the sense should not be omitted. This fault is especially common after so, too, and very—words which, as they express degree, properly qualify adjectives or adverbs, and not verbs or participles; also after behave, which, like the noun "behavior," requires a qualifying word to determine the meaning.

[117] "Foundations," p. 123.


Supply the omitted adverbs:—

1. He was very struck by what she said.
2. I wish you would behave.
3. The king was very dissatisfied with his wife.
4. I have too trusted to my own wild wants.
5. If you cannot behave yourself, you had better stay at home.
6. We are very pleased to see you.

Redundant Adjectives and Adverbs.[118]—A word that is not needed is said to be "redundant." Redundant expressions should be carefully avoided.

[118] Ibid., pp. 123-125.


Strike out the useless adjectives and adverbs:—

1. From thence they marched twenty miles.
2. Which do you prefer most, apples or oranges?
3. Whenever I meet him he always stops me.
4. Celia wished to accompany Rosalind; therefore they both set out together.
5. The view from the top is simply beautiful.
6. Finally Rosalind disclosed her true identity.
7. The exercises are appointed for 2 P.M. to-morrow afternoon.
8. There are numerous mountain streams all throughout this region which abound in brook trout.
9. The central pith of the report is as follows.
10. Secluded and alone, he now partook of his solitary repast, which he entirely consumed.
11. Out of the second term I took out the factor x.
12. Right in behind East Rock we have a beautiful lake.
13. When everything was all ready they started off.
14. He was a boy of eighteen years old.
15. If the ground is uneven they just level it off with a shovel.
16. Once the two twins were shipwrecked while on a sailing voyage.
17. The purple bird was once a royal king named Picus.
18. A large search-light will show a sail at a distance of three or four miles away.
19. Each of the provinces was ruled over by a duke.
20. When he returned he entered into the printing business.
21. He had a good chance to shift off the sky to the shoulders of Hercules.
22. The mud falls off from the wheels and makes the street dirty.
23. An old merchant of Syracuse, named Ægeon, had two twin sons.
24. He was almost universally admired and respected by all who knew him.
25. Pretty soon the man's hands began to get all blistered.
26. Before you go you must first finish your work.
27. He did it equally as well as his friends.
28. It must be ten years ago since he left town.
29. Collect together all the fragments.
30. The play opens up with a scene in a forest.
31. He has the universal good-will of everybody.
32. Please raise up the window.
33. The story ends up happily.
34. They always entered school together every morning.
35. Out of the entire pack only two dogs remained.
36. He went away, but soon reappeared again.
37. A monstrous large snake crawled out from under the identical stone on which you are this very minute sitting.
38. I was deceived by false misrepresentations.
39. This question opened up the whole subject.
40. Let us, however, endeavor to trace up some of this hearsay evidence
as far towards its source as we are able.
41. I will see you later on.

Misused Adjectives and Adverbs.[119]—See the remarks under "Misused Nouns." An amusing illustration of misused adjectives was furnished by an illiterate man who introduced his second wife to a friend as "My late wife."


Aggravating, irritating.—In good use aggravating means "making heavier, more grave, worse in some way." It is often misused for irritating, exasperating, or provoking.

All, the whole.—See page 120.

Apt, likely, liable.Apt implies a natural predisposition, an habitual tendency. "Likely implies a probability of whatever character; liable, an unpleasant probability."[120] One is apt to speak quickly, likely to hear good news, liable to be hurt.

Both, each, every.Both, meaning "the two, and not merely one of them," groups objects, as, "Both were men of hot temper." Each means "all of any number, considered one by one," as, "Each boy recited in his turn." Every means "all of any number, considered as composing a group or class," as, "Every pupil should have a dictionary and use it freely." "Every directs attention chiefly to the totality, each chiefly to the individuals composing it. It may also be observed that each usually refers to a numerically definite group.... Thus, 'Each theory is open to objection' relates to an understood enumeration of theories, but 'Every theory is open to objection' refers to all theories that may exist."[121]

Many, much.Many refers to number, much to quantity.

Mutual, common.Mutual properly means "reciprocal," "interchanged." It is often misused for common in the sense of "belonging equally to both or all," especially in the phrase, "A mutual friend."

Partly, partially.—"Partly, in the sense of 'in part,' is preferable to partially, since partially also means 'with partiality.'"[122]

Quite, very.Quite properly means "entirely"; in the sense of "very" or "to a considerable degree" it is not in good use.

So-as, as-as.—Both so and as are used as adverbs of degree correlative with the conjunction "as": unless there is a negative in the clause as is generally used; with a negative so is preferable to as. We say "It is as cold as ice," "It is not so good as it looks."

[119] "Foundations," p. 125.
[120] Ibid., p. 128.
[121] Murray's Dictionary.
[122] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


Tell the difference in meaning between

1. The circumstances of the offense are aggravating (exasperating).
2. She gave an orange to both (each) of them.
3. Each (every) man has his faults.
4. I had a call from both (each) of the boys.
5. He is apt (likely) to win the race.
6. A mutual (common) friendship.
7. The weekly reports are partially (partly) made out.


Insert the proper word in each blank:

Aggravating, irritating.
1. Some of his remarks were ——.
2. The prisoner said his wife's conduct had been very ——.
3. He has an —— manner.
4. He was too —— by half.
5. The murder was committed under —— circumstances.

All, the whole.
6. —— (of) the boys were sent off at a day's notice to their homes.

[For additional exercises, see page 125].

Apt, likely, liable.
7. An industrious man is —— to succeed.
8. The ship was —— to founder at any moment.
9. Bad books are —— to corrupt the reader,
10. If a man does not care for himself, he is not —— to care much for other people.
11. Youth is —— to err.
12. Any kind of taxation is —— to be looked on as a grievance.
13. We are constantly —— to accidents.
14. Men are —— to think well of themselves, their nation, their courage, and their strength.

Both, each, every.
15. —— of them has (have) taken a different course.
16. —— went his way.
17. He told me to invite —— brother and sister.
18. He gave his hand to —— of them.
19. In —— cheek (cheeks) appears a pretty dimple.
20. I am feeling better in —— way.
21. The oak and the elm have —— a distinct character.
22. He'll be hanged yet, though —— drop of water swear against it.
23. —— soldier has a musket, and —— one fires as fast as he can.
24. —— inhabitant, male or female, young or old, was there.
25. In —— ten women that the gods make, the devils mar five.
26. There is a row of beautiful elm-trees on —— side(s) of the road.

Many, much.
27. We saw as —— as twenty tramps.
28. He blames his uncle for —— of his misfortune.
29. I found that —— of the accidents on this railroad are caused by negligence.
30. How —— of your peaches have you sold?

Mutual, common.
31. Charles and his wife were happy in their —— love.
32. They parted with —— good feeling.
33. We have a —— friend in Mr. Phelps.
34. I find, Miss Vernon, that we have some —— friends.

Partly, partially.
35. Beware of acting ——.
36. All men are —— buried in the grave of custom.
37. This is —— true.
38. The city of York is —— surrounded by a wall.

Quite, very.
39. The country is —— open.
40. The snow has —— covered the ground.
41. Books —— worthless are —— harmless.
42. The island is —— close to the mainland.
43. He was —— dead when they found him.
44. You are —— mistaken.
45. He is —— ill.

So-as, as-as.
46. She is —— amiable as she is beautiful.
47. He is —— tall as his brother, but not —— tall as I.
48. You have never —— much as answered my letter.
49. Come —— quickly as you can.
50. No other country suffered —— much as England.


Apparently, evidently, manifestly.—"Apparently is properly used of that which seems, but may not be, real; evidently, of that which both seems and is real."[123] Manifestly is stronger than evidently.

Average, ordinary.Average implies an arithmetical computation; if four persons lose respectively $10, $20, $30, and $40, the average loss is $25. The word is used figuratively by Dr. O.W. Holmes in "The average intellect of five hundred persons, taken as they come, is not very high." In the sense of "usual," "common in occurrence," "of the usual standard," ordinary is preferable to average.

Bound, determined.Bound properly means "obliged," "fated," or "under necessity": as, "A man is bound by his word;" "We hold ourselves in gratitude bound to receive ... all such persons." In the sense of "determined" hound is not in good use. In the sense of "sure" it is in colloquial, but not in literary, use.

Continual, continuous.—"Continual is used of frequently repeated acts, as, 'Continual dropping wears away a stone;' continuous, of uninterrupted action, as, 'the continuous flowing of a river.'"[125]

Deadly, deathly.—"Deathly, in the sense of 'resembling death,' as, 'She was deathly pale,' is preferable to deadly, since deadly also means 'inflicting death.'"[124]

Decided, decisive.—"A decided opinion is a strong opinion, which perhaps decides nothing; a decisive opinion settles the question at issue. A lawyer may have decided views on a case; the judgment of a court is decisive."[125]

Dumb, stupid.Dumb properly means "mute," "silent." Its misuse for stupid is partly due, especially in Pennsylvania, to its resemblance to the German dumm.

Existing, extant.—That is extant which has escaped the ravages of time (used chiefly of books, manuscripts, etc.); that is existing which has existence.

Funny, odd.Funny means "comical;" in the sense of "strange" or "odd" it is not in good use.

Healthy, healthful, wholesome.—That is healthy which is in good health; that is healthful or wholesome which produces health. Wholesome commonly applies to food.

Human, humane.Human denotes what pertains to man as man; as, "human nature," "human sacrifices." Humane means "compassionate."

Latest, last.Latest, like the word "late," contains a distinct reference to time; that is latest which comes after all others in time:
as, "The latest news;" "The latest fashion." Last, which was originally a contraction of "latest," is now used without any distinct reference to time, and denotes that which comes after all others in space or in a series: as, "The last house on the street;" "The Last of the Mohicans."

Lengthy, long.Lengthy is said to have originated in the United States, but the earliest quotations found are from British authors. In the introduction to the second series of The Biglow Papers, Mr. Lowell wrote:
"We have given back to England the excellent adjective lengthy ... thus enabling their journalists to characterize our President's messages by a word civilly compromising between long and tedious, so as not to endanger the peace of the two countries by wounding our national sensitiveness to British criticism." Lengthy is used chiefly of discourses or writings, and implies tediousness. Long is used of anything that has length.

Mad, angry.Mad means "insane;" in the sense of "angry" it is not in good use.

New, novel.—That is new which is not old; that is novel which is both new and strange.

Oral, verbal.—"Oral, in the sense of 'in spoken words,' is preferable to verbal, since verbal means 'in words' whether spoken or written."[126]

Pitiable, pitiful.—"Pitiable, in the sense of 'deserving pity,' is preferable to pitiful, since pitiful also means 'compassionate,' as, 'The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy.'"[126]

Practicable, practical.—That is practicable which can be done; that is practical which is not theoretical only: as, "a practicable plan," "a practical electrician."

Prominent, eminent.Prominent means "conspicuous," "standing out so as to be easily seen;" eminent means "distinguished in character or rank."

Real, really, very.Real is properly an adjective, meaning "not imaginary or counterfeit," as, "real diamonds." Its misuse for the adverbs really and very, as, "This is real pretty," is a vulgarism.

Scared, afraid.—The participle scared means "frightened;" afraid is an adjective meaning "in fear." Before "of," the proper word is afraid: as, "She is afraid of horses." Scared of is not in good use.

Grand, gorgeous, awful, splendid, elegant, lovely, magnificent.Grand properly implies "grandeur;" gorgeous, "splendid colors;" awful, "awe;" elegant, "elegance;" splendid, "splendor;" lovely, "surpassing loveliness;" magnificent, "magnificence."

"We talk, sometimes, with people whose conversation would lead you to suppose that they had lived in a museum, where all the objects were monsters and extremes.... They use the superlative of grammar: 'most perfect,' 'most exquisite,' 'most horrible.' Like the French, they are enchanted, they are desolate, because you have got or have not got a shoestring or a wafer you happen to want—not perceiving that superlatives are diminutives and weaken.... All this comes of poverty. We are unskilful definers. From want of skill to convey quality, we hope to move admiration by quantity. Language should aim to describe the fact.... 'Tis very wearisome, this straining talk, these experiences all exquisite, intense, and tremendous."[127]

[123] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[124] Ibid., p. 18.
[125] Ibid., p. 38.
[126] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[127] R.W. Emerson; The Superlative.


Tell the difference in meaning between

1. The average (ordinary) yield of wheat.
2. He is bound (determined) to come.
3. There was continual (continuous) fighting for three days.
4. It was deadly (deathly) cold in the cave.
5. A decided (decisive) victory.
6. The boy is dumb (stupid).
7. His story is apparently (evidently, manifestly) true.
8. The existing (extant) portraits of Milton.
9. His actions were very funny (odd).
10. This is a healthy (wholesome) plant.
11. A human (humane) being.
12. His latest (last) attempt.
13. Long (lengthy) explanations.
14. She became mad (angry).
15. A new (novel) style.
16. An oral (verbal) message.
17. A pitiable (pitiful) man.
18. Your purpose seems practical (practicable).
19. A prominent (an eminent) man.
20. He was really (very) glad to see us.


Insert the proper word in each blank:—

Apparently, evidently, manifestly.
1. The motion which—- belongs to the sun, really belongs to the earth.
2. The stranger was—- in the prime of manhood.
3. The apparent (evident) discrepancy between the two narratives is not real.
4. Our country is—- growing in wealth.
5. A straight line is—- the shortest distance between two points.

Average, ordinary.
6. To be excited is not the—- state of the mind.
7. This picture has only—- merit.
8.—- conversation is not instructive.
9. The—- American is not wealthy.
10. The—- expenses per man of the Yale class of '95 during Freshman year were $912.
11. The life of the—- man is safer and more comfortable than it was a century ago.
12. The—- age of the signers of the Declaration of Independence was nearly forty-four.
13. Their—- duties were easy.

Bound, determined.
14. He worked hard at his piece, for he was—- to speak it well.
15. We have promised, therefore we are—- to go.
16. I am—- to win, if I can.
17. They were—- that they would see the end of the play, even though they should miss their train.

Continual, Continuous.
18. He was exposed to—- interruptions.
19. A—- line in space.
20. —— victory makes leaders insolent.
21. A —— siege of six months.
22. The power of abstract study or of —— thought is rare.

Deadly, deathly.
23. A —— stillness.
24. The —— bite of the rattlesnake.
25. My wound is ——.
26. Her hands were —— cold.
27. She, poor thing, was looking —— pale.
28. Many savages have seen a musket kill small animals and yet have not known how —— an instrument it is.

Decided, decisive.
29. He felt a —— aversion to company.
30. Smith spoke out boldly in a —— tone.
31. Creasy's "Fifteen —— Battles of the World."
32. The nature of lightning was not known until Franklin made his —— experiment.

Dumb, stupid
33. A man who cannot write with wit on a proper subject is dull and ——.
34. A deaf and —— person.
35. I was struck —— with astonishment.
36. Judging from his recitations, I should say that John is either lazy or ——.

Extant, existing.
37. God created all —— things.
38. Only two authentic portraits of Shakespeare are ——.
39. There are —— seven hundred and sixty-five of Cicero's letters.
40. Every citizen should exert himself to remove —— evils.

Funny, odd.
41. It is —— he never told me of his marriage.
42. He made the boys laugh by drawing —— pictures on his slate.
43. You must have thought it —— we didn't send for you.
44. He amused us with —— stories.

Healthy, healthful, wholesome.
45. Tomatoes are said to be a very —— food.
46. If a —— body contributes to the health of the mind, so also a —— mind keeps the body well.
47. Gardening is a —— recreation for a man of study or business.
48. —— food in a —— climate makes a —— man.
49. A —— situation. A —— constitution.- ——diet.

Human, humane.
50. A—- disposition is not cruel.
51. To err is—-; to forgive, divine.
52. In the time of Abraham—- sacrifices were common among his heathen neighbors.
53. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is a —— organization.

Latest, last.
54. The—- men in the procession.
55. The—- news.
56. The—- of the Incas.
57. Have you read the—- novel?
58. The—- foot-ball game of the season will be played with the Yale Freshmen.

Lengthy, long.
59. Cotton Mather wrote many—- dissertations.
60. It is a—- ride from Ellen's Isle to Stirling.
61. A—- line of ancestors.
63. We were wearied by his—- explanations.

Mad, angry.
63. His sarcastic manner makes me—-.
64. That is nothing to get—- at.
65. I have heard my grandsire say full oft,
Extremity of griefs would make men —-.

New, novel.
66. We have a—- horse.
67. A—- feature of the entertainment was the "Broom Drill."
68. At the World's Fair we saw many—- sights, especially in the Midway Plaisance.
69. Alice had many—- experiences in Wonder Land.

Oral, verbal.
70. Some slight—- changes have been made in the new edition of this book.
71. Were your instructions—- or written.

Pitiable, pitiful.
72. The condition of the poor in our great cities is—-.
73. Be gentle unto griefs and needs,
Be —- as woman should.
74. The wretched girl was in a—- plight.
75. A—- sight.

Practicable, practical.
76. We have hired a —— gardener.
77. This plan of campaign is not ——.
78. We found the road not —— because of the heavy rains.
79. A victory may be a —— defeat.

Prominent, eminent.
80. Censure is the tax a man pays to the public for being ——.
81. The figure of a man is —— in the picture.
82. Frogs have —— eyes.
83. Washington was a (an) —— man.
84. John Quincy Adams was the —— son of a (an) —— father.

Real, really, very.
85. She came home looking —— well after her long visit.
86. Protestants believe that the bread of the Lord's supper is not —— changed, but remains —— bread.
87. Homer tells us that the blood of the gods is not —— blood, but only something like it.
88. I am —— glad you have come.
89. He is —— dead.
90. It was —— kind in you to send me flowers.
91. Yes, I am —— old; I am sixty.
92. He speaks —— well, doesn't he?
93. —— kings hide away their crowns in their wardrobes, and affect a plain and poor exterior.
94. This is —— pretty.
95. We came on a —— fast train.
96. She seemed —— glad to see us.
97. The hotel is situated —— near the sea.

Scared, afraid.
98. She was badly —— when her horse ran away.
99. Harry is —— of tramps.
100. Helen was —— of the cows in the meadow.


Illustrate by original sentences the correct use of each of these words: —Both, each, every, aggravating, liable, likely, apt, mutual, partially, quite, average, bound, continual, continuous, deadly, deathly, decided, decisive, dumb, apparently, evidently, extant, funny, healthy, healthful, wholesome, human, humane, latest, last, lengthy, mad, novel, verbal, pitiable, pitiful, practicable, practical, prominent, eminent, real, really, scared, grand, gorgeous, awful, splendid, elegant, lovely, magnificent.

Use of the Comparative and Superlative.—The comparative degree is preferable when two things or sets of things are compared, the superlative when three or more are compared.

To say "Iron is more useful than any metal" is clearly incorrect, because iron is included in "any metal," and of course iron is not more useful than itself. We must in thought set iron off in a class by itself, which we can do by inserting "other" after "any." "Iron is more useful than any other metal" is correct. After comparatives accompanied by "than," the words "any" and "all" should be followed by "other."

To say "Iron is the most useful of any (or, any other) metal" is also clearly incorrect, because we mean that iron is the most useful, not of "one metal (no matter which)" or of "some metals (no matter which)," but of all metals. We should therefore omit the word "any," saying simply "Iron is the most useful of (all) metals." It is also incorrect to say "Iron is the most useful of all other metals," for iron is not one of the "other metals." Beware of using "any" or "other" with superlatives followed by "of."

[128] See note To the Teacher, p. 41.


Which of the italicized forms is preferable?
1. Of London and Paris, London is the wealthier (wealthiest).
2. Of two evils, choose the less (least).
3. The older (oldest) of the three boys was sent to college.
4. Which can run the faster (fastest), your horse or mine?
5. Of the two Latin poets, Virgil and Horace, the first (former) is the better (best) known.
6. Which is the better (best) of the two?
7. Which is the farther (farthest) east, Boston New York, or Philadelphia?
8. There is no doubt about him (his) being the better (best) in the little group of friends.
9. Which is the larger (largest) number, the minuend or the subtrahend?


Explain and correct the errors in the following sentences:

1. This picture is, of all others, the one I like best.
2. This engraving of mine I like better than any picture I have.
3. London is more crowded than any city in Great Britain.
4. London is the most crowded of any city in Great Britain.
5. She of all other girls ought to be the last to complain.
6. Our grammar lessons are the hardest of any we have.
7. St. Peter's is larger than any church in the world.
8. St. Peter's is the largest of any church in the world.
9. Noah and his family outlived all the people who lived before the flood.
10. Solomon was wiser than all men.
11. This State exports more cotton than all the states.
12. A cowboy is the most picturesque of any men.
13. Tabby has the worst temper of any cat I know.
14. He thinks Gettysburg has the prettiest girls of any town of its size.
15. The proposed method of Mr. F.G. Jackson, the English arctic explorer, appears to be the most practical and business-like of any yet undertaken for exploring the polar regions.


Construct sentences comparing the following things, using first a comparative, then a superlative form:

1. The large population of China; the smaller populations of other countries. EXAMPLE.—China has a larger population than any other country. Of all countries, China has the largest population in the world.
2. John, who is very mischievous; other boys, who are less mischievous.
3. Eve, who was exceedingly fair; her daughters (female descendants), who are less fair.
4. Smith, the best athlete; the other boys in the school.
5. Mary's recitations; the poorer recitations of her classmates.
6. The population of London; the population of the other cities in the world.
7. The circulation of the "Star;" the smaller circulation of other newspapers in the county.
8. Ethel's eyes; the eyes of her playmates, which are not so bright.
9. The examination papers of Professor A.; the easier papers set by other teachers.
10. Philip; his classmates, who are less bright.
11. Solomon, the wisest king; other kings.
12. Samson, the strongest man; other men.
13. Jacob's love for Joseph; his love for his other children.
14. Youth; the other periods of life, which are less important.
15. Demosthenes; the other and inferior orators of Greece.
16. The books read by Fannie; the fewer books read by her classmates.
17. This shady grove; other groves I know, which are less shady.
18. The reign of Louis XIV.; the shorter reigns of other French kings.
19. Shakespeare; other English poets, all of whom are inferior to him.
20. The Falls of Niagara; other falls in the United States.

Adjectives and Adverbs incapable of Comparison.[129]
Some adjectives and adverbs have meanings which do not vary in degree: as,
dead, perfect, wooden. Such adjectives cannot properly be compared or
modified by the words "more," "most," "so," "too," and "very."

[129] "Foundations," p. 135.


Which of the following adjectives and adverbs do not vary in degree?— Absolutely, brave, cloudless, cold, conclusively, continually, entirely, essentially, extreme, faultless, French, fundamental, golden, happy, impregnable, inaudible, incessant, incredible, indispensable, insatiate, inseparable, intangible, intolerable, invariable, long, masterly, round, sharp, square, sufficient, unanimous, unbearable, unbounded, unerring, unique, universally, unparalleled, unprecedented.

Misplaced Adjectives and Adverbs.[130]—A word, a phrase, or a clause used as an adjective or an adverb should come next to the word, or words, which it modifies.

The word only requires special care. Observe how the position of only affects the meaning in the following sentences: "Only he lost his hat;" "He only lost his hat;" "He lost only his hat," or "He lost his hat only;" "He lost his only hat."

[130] "Foundations," p. 136.


Correct the errors of position in the following sentences:—

1. Metal reflectors are only used now for cheap search-lights.
2. I will only mention some of the best.
3. I only had time to read "King Lear."
4. He only spoke to me, not to you.
5. Coons are only killed with the help of dogs. The coon only comes out in the night-time.
6. Lost, a Scotch terrier, by a gentleman, with his ears cut close.
7. Canteens were issued to the soldiers with short necks.
8. We all went to the sea-shore for a little fresh air from the city.
9. At one time Franklin was seen bringing some paper to his printing-office from the place where he had purchased it in a wheelbarrow.
10. He went to Germany to patronize the people in the little German villages from which he came with his great wealth.
11. The three young men set out and finally arrived at the college dressed in girls' clothes.
12. The maskers were nearly dressed alike.
13. Erected to the memory of John Smith accidentally shot as a mark of affection by his brother.
14. Lost, an umbrella by a gentleman with an ivory head.
15. A piano for sale by a lady about to cross the channel in an oak case with carved legs.
16. He blew out his brains after bidding his wife good-bye with a gun.
17. The Moor, seizing a bolster, full of rage and jealousy, smothered Desdemona.
18. Wanted, a handsome Shetland pony suitable for a child with a long mane and tail.
19. Wolsey left many buildings which he had begun at his death in an unfinished state.
20. My cousin caught a crab and took it home in a pail of water which we had for our tea.
21. I scarcely ever remember to have had a rougher walk.

Adverbs between To and The Infinitive.—"A careful writer will do well to avoid the construction which places the adverb between to and the infinitive. It is true that the construction is a common one; but it is also true that those who are most addicted to the practice are not those who count most as authorities on questions of good usage."[131]

[131] "Foundations," p. 140.


Improve the arrangement in the following sentences

1. Hermes caused the milk pitcher of the old couple to never be empty.
2. His political enemies tried to in this way impeach the courage of the President.
3. He promises to earnestly try to do better.
4. To really know the man we must read his books.
5. Another project is to in some way modify the power of the House of Lords.
6. She dwelt upon what was comforting, though conscious that there was little to veritably console.
7. He proposed to either largely decrease the appropriation or to wholly do away with it.



Misused Prepositions.[132]—A writer, in choosing the proper preposition to express his meaning, must rely chiefly on his sense of idiom, that is, his knowledge of English usage, but he may find the following notes helpful.

Among, between.—"Among is the proper word when the reference is to more than two persons or things, or groups of persons or things; between, when the reference is to two only."[133]

At, in.—Before names of places to denote "where," at is used when the place is so small as to be treated as a mere point, or when, although large, it is viewed as a mere point; in is used when it is desired to make prominent the idea "within the bounds of:" as, "He arrived at Liverpool in the morning and remained in that city two days." Before the name of the place in which the speaker dwells, if the place is of any size, in is generally preferred to at, unless the place is so remote that it dwindles in the mental vision to a point.

Back of.Back of, though frequently heard in conversation and sometimes seen in print, is not in good use.

Beside, besides.Beside means "by the side of;" besides is now used only in the sense of "in addition to," "other than:" as, "Who sits beside you?" "Who besides us knows this?"

By, with.—To introduce the agent of an action by is now commonly used; the material instrument or tool is usually introduced by with: as, "Duncan was murdered by Macbeth with a dagger."

Different from, different to.Different from is preferable to different to and different than.

In, into.—"In implies presence inside of, or within; into implies movement to the inside of. Before a man can move in a room, he must already have moved into it."[134]

In, on.—Before names of streets, in implies some reference to surroundings; on is less definite, indicating location only.

On to, onto.—"Good use does not support either on to or onto."[135]

Wait for, wait on.—To wait for means "to await," as, "We will wait for you at the corner." To wait on means "to attend on," as, "At dinner the women waited on the men."

[132] "Foundations," pp. 142-148.
[133] Ibid., p. 143.
[134] Ibid., p. 145.
[135] "Foundations," p. 146.


Insert the proper preposition in each blank:—

Among, between.
1. He divided the apples —— the five boys.
2. There was a generous rivalry —— the two friends.
3. I have no preference —— many of Tennyson's poems.
4. There is bad feeling —— China and Japan.
5. The money was divided —— the six heirs.

At, in.
6. Napoleon died —— Longwood, a villa on the island of St. Helena; Byron died —— Missolonghi, —— Greece.
7. Did he graduate —— Oxford or —— Cambridge?
8. He is now —— Ireland.
9. Milton was educated —— Christ's College.
10. When shall we arrive —— Rome?
11. I am eager to visit a hundred places —— Florence.
12. We live —— New York.
13. Macaulay lived —— London.

Beside, besides.
14. Have you nothing to tell us —— what we have already heard?
15. The boy stood —— her.
16. —— the large planets, there are hundreds of smaller planets called
17. Let me sit —— you.

By, with.
18. The door was fastened —— nails —— the carpenter.
19. The Great Charter was signed —— King John.
20. Thebes was founded —— Cadmus.
21. Truth finds an easy entrance into the mind when she is introduced —— Desire and attended —— Pleasure.
22. He entertained us —— a story.
23. He struck me —— his cane.

In, into.
24. The dog is —— the water.
25. Come —— the house.
26. Look —— my desk.
27. Put more life —— your speaking.
28. Throw it —— the fire.
29. What put this idea —— your head?
30. Carry the basket —— the kitchen.
31. She threw herself —— a chair.

In, on.
32. The cable cars —— Broadway.
33. Ellen and Harry are playing —— the street.
34. The Murray Hill Hotel is —— Fourth Avenue.
35. They carry on their business —— William Street.

"With certain words good use requires special prepositions. Among these words are the following:—

abhorrence of.
absolve from.
accord with.
acquit of.
adapted to or for.
affinity between, to, or with.
agree with (a person).
agree to (a proposal).
averse from or to.
bestow upon.
change for (a thing).
change with (a person).
comply with.
center on (= give to).
confer with (= talk with).
confide in (= trust in).
confide to (= intrust to).
conform to.
in conformity with or to.
convenient for or to.
conversant with.
correspond to or with (a thing).
correspond with (a person).
dependent on (but independent of).
derogatory to.
differ from (a person or thing).
differ from or with (in opinion).
disappointed of (what we cannot get).
disappointed in (what we have).
dissent from.
glad at or of.
involve in.
martyr for or to.
need of.
part from or with.
profit by.
reconcile to or with.
taste of (food).
taste for (art).
Thirst for or after."[136]

[136] "Foundations," p. 148.


I. Tell the difference in meaning between

1. She confides in (to) her sister.
2. He differs from (with) me.
3. We are disappointed of (in) our guests.
4. He is in (at) New York.
5. He waited on (for) his mother.

II. Tell what prepositions are required with these words: Abhorrence, absolve, accord, acquit, adapted, affinity, agree, agreeable, averse, bestow, change (verb), comply, confer, confide, conform, in conformity, convenient, conversant, correspond, dependent, derogatory, differ, different, disappointed, dissent (verb), eager, exception, expert, glad, independent, involve, martyr, need (noun), part (verb), profit (verb), reconcile, taste (noun), thirst (noun), worthy.


Insert the proper preposition in each blank:—[137]

1. Please wait —— me; I will come as soon as I can.
2. She married him —— her father's consent.
3. The cathedral was rich —— all kinds of golden vessels.
4. Moses received the laws —— the people on Mount Sinai.
5. Evangeline died —— Philadelphia.
6. —— whom did they rent the house?
7. —— whom can I rely?
8. The boy went in search —— his sister.
9. The streams —— this region abound —— trout.
10. The traces of a struggle were seen —— the tree.
11. They got —— the carriage and rode away.
12. He has moved —— New York, where he lives —— an elegant mansion.
13. He thought that he put the money —— his pocket, but he found it —— his shoe.
14. The paper was cut —— small strips.
15. We stood —— the landing.
16. The firemen went —— the roof of the house.
17. He is down —— the village.
18. What was the matter —— him?
19. He died —— a fever.
20. When we were —— Rome we stayed —— a small hotel.
21. He lives —— a frame house —— Cambridge.
22. Her unladylike behavior gave occasion —— many unpleasant remarks.
23. Caterpillars change —— butterflies.
24. She lives —— College Street, —— No. 1009.
25. It was conducive —— my comfort.
26. The calm was followed —— a sudden storm.
27. The soil of Virginia is adapted —— the production of hemp and tobacco.
28. The flower is excellently adapted —— catching insects.
29. Congress consists —— a Senate and a House of Representatives.
30. —— what does happiness consist?
31. —— some sentences the conjunction is omitted.
32. A judge who has an interest in a case is disqualified —— hearing it.
33. He was accused —— robbery.
34. He died —— starvation, she —— pneumonia.
35. You may rely —— what I say, and confide —— my honesty.
36. The bird flew —— the tree.
37. He let the knife fall —— the creek.
38. What is my grief in comparison —— that which she bears?
39. Most persons feel an abhorrence —— snakes.
40. He aspires —— political distinction.
41. We were disappointed —— the pleasure of seeing you.
42. There is need —— great watchfulness.
43. I have been —— New Orleans, and I am now going —— New York.
44. We lived —— a little village —— the South.
45. I find no difficulty —— keeping up with my class.
46. —— every class of people selfishness prevails.
47. He divided his estate —— his son, his daughter, and his nephew.
48. He is very different —— his brother.
49. This was different —— what I expected.
50. Compare your work —— his, and you will see the difference.
51. My old yacht was small in comparison —— this.
52. He is adapted —— an out-door life.
53. His disobedience was attended —— serious consequences.
54. His mother was overcome —— grief.
55. We were accompanied —— our parents.
56. A man should try to rid himself —— prejudice.
57. He will profit —— his experience.
58. The room was redolent —— the perfume.
59. You must conform —— the rules.
60. Fondness —— horses was his leading trait.
61. We felt the need —— some adviser.
62. I cannot reconcile this assertion —— your other one.
63. Let us cut it —— three equal parts.
64. He is acquitted —— all blame.
65. The Pope absolved him —— his oath of allegiance.
66. This fact does not accord —— her declaration.
67. I do not agree —— you; therefore I cannot agree —— your proposal.
68. The queen bestowed —— Tennyson the title of baron.
69. The college has conferred —— my uncle the degree of Doctor of Divinity.
70. The two emperors conferred —— each other for an hour.
71. He is conversant —— many languages.
72. They were independent —— each other.
73. His sisters are dependent —— him.
74. That is not derogatory —— their character.
75. I dissent —— that proposition.
76. We are glad —— his promotion.
77. He has a taste —— poetry; she, a thirst —— knowledge.
78. In 1842 he emerged —— obscurity.
79. His property was merged —— the common stock.
80. She often went —— town shopping.
81. He plunged —— the deepest part of the lake.
82. These bands of Indians were accompanied —— settlers from Detroit.
83. The settlers were in company —— Indians.
84. His proposal is likely to stir up ill-will —— the various classes.
85. The Greeks, fearing that they would be surrounded, wheeled about and halted, with the river —— their backs.
86. We are within three miles —— Salisbury.

Omitted Prepositions.[138]—"Beware of omitting a preposition that is needed to make the meaning clear or the sentence grammatical."[139]

"Before 'home' the preposition 'at' should never be omitted, but the
preposition 'to' is always omitted: e.g., 'I am going home.'"[138]

[137] In this exercise the pupil must rely chiefly on his knowledge of English usage or on a dictionary. In some of the sentences more than one preposition is allowable, according to the sense.
[138] "Foundations," p. 149.
[139] Ibid., p. 150.


Insert the necessary prepositions in the following sentences:

1. What use is this piece of ribbon?
2. The oak was five feet diameter.
3. My business prevented me attending the last meeting of the committee.
4. I could not refrain shedding tears.
5. The remark is worthy the fool that made it.
6. It is unworthy your notice.
7. He lives the other side the river.
8. He fled the country, and went either to England or France.
9. Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as admiration.
10. Religion is a comfort in youth as well as old age.
11. It's no use to give up.
12. This side the mountain the country is thickly settled; the other side there are few inhabitants.
13. I wrote Mr. Knapp to come Wednesday, and promised that he should find us home.
14. Wealth is more conducive to worldliness than piety.
15. He is not home, but I think he is coming home to-night.

Redundant Prepositions.[140]—Beware of inserting prepositions which are not needed.

[140] Ibid., p. 150.


Strike out the redundant prepositions:

1. He met a boy of about eighteen years old.
2. Cadmus stood pondering upon what he should do.
3. Let a gallows be erected of fifty cubits high.
4. Hercules was very willing to take the world off from his shoulders and give it to Atlas again.
5. No one can help from loving her.
6. From thence in two days the Greeks marched twenty miles.
7. There was much of wisdom in their plan.
8. A workman fell off of the ladder.
9. On one day I caught five trout, on another twelve.
10. We must examine into this subject more carefully.
11. A child copies after its parents.
12. The proposal to go to the woods was approved of by all of the boys.
13. At about what time will father return?
14. After having heard his story, I gave him a dollar.
15. The spring is near to the house.
16. Bruno followed on after his master.
17. Wanted, a young man of from sixteen to twenty-one years of age.
18. They went on to the steamer soon after dinner.
19. Look out of the window.



Vulgarisms.[141]—Every educated person is expected to know the correct use of the following words:—

Like, as.—In good use like is never a conjunction, and therefore it cannot be used instead of as to introduce a clause. It is incorrect to say, "Walk like I walk," but one may say, "He walks like me," or "He looks like his grandfather."[142]

Except, without, unless.Except, which was originally a past-participle, was once in good use as a conjunction; but in modern use it has been displaced as a conjunction by unless, and is now a preposition only. We may say, "All went except me," but we may not say, "Except you go with me, I will stay at home." Another word not in good use as a conjunction, but often heard instead of "unless," is without.

[141] "Foundations," p. 152.
[142] See page 109.


Insert the proper word in each blank:

Like, as.

1. Do —— I do.
2. She fears a chicken —— you fear a snake.
3. Thin bushy hair falls down on each side of his face somewhat —— Longfellow's hair did in his later life.
4. I wish I could sing —— she can.
5. I will be a lawyer —— my father.
6. I will be a lawyer —— my father was.
7. She looks —— (if) she were crying.
8. He acted —— (if) he were guilty.
9. Our snow-tunnel looked —— we imagined Aladdin's cave looked.
10. He treated me —— a cat treats a mouse.
11. Seventy-five cents a day will not feed those men —— they wish to be fed.
12. The lines in this stanza are not forced —— in other stanzas.
13. If I were a boy —— Ralph is, I would try to stop the thing.

Except, without, unless.
14. I do not know how my horse got away —— somebody untied him.
15. Do not come —— you hear from me.
16. I will not go —— father is willing.
17. I will not go —— father's consent.
18. —— you study better, you will be dropped.
19. It will be cool to-morrow —— a hot wave comes.
20. I cannot go —— money.
21. I cannot go —— father sends me some money.
22. I will be there promptly —— I hear from you.
23. Do not write —— you feel in the mood for it.
24. She has no fault —— diffidence.
25. She has no fault —— it be diffidence.
26. He cannot enlist —— with his guardian's consent.

Misused Conjunctions.[143]—Conjunctions are few in number and are more definite in their meanings than prepositions. Most errors in using them spring from confused thinking or hasty writing. "A close reasoner and a good writer in general may be known by his pertinent use of connectives."[144]

And.And has, generally speaking, the meaning of "in addition to."

But.—But implies some exception, opposition, or contrast. Equivalent, or nearly equivalent, expressions are "however," "on the other hand," "yet," "nevertheless."

As.—"As has so many meanings that it is better, when possible, to use a conjunction that covers less ground."[145]

Because, for, since.—The difference between these words is chiefly a difference in emphasis. "We will not go, because it is raining" is the strongest way of expressing the relation of cause and effect. In "Since it is raining, we will not go," the emphasis is shifted from the cause to the effect, which becomes the prominent idea. In "We will not go, for it is raining," the reason, "it is raining," is announced as itself a bit of news. Often the choice between these words is decided by the ear.

How.How properly means "in what manner" or "to what extent." It is often misused for "that" to introduce an object clause.

Nor, or.Nor is the correlative of neither, sometimes of other negatives. Or is the correlative of either.

Therefore, so.—In the sense of "for this reason," therefore is preferable to so, since so has other meanings.

Though.Though means "notwithstanding," "in spite of the fact that."

As if, as though.—"As if is, on the whole, preferable to as

When, while.When means "at the time that;" while, "during the
time that," "as long as." "When fixes attention on a date or period;
while fixes attention on the lapse of time."[147]

[143] "Foundations," p.152.
[144] Coleridge: Table Talk. Quoted by A.S. Hill in Principles of
[145] "Foundations," p. 153.
[146] "Foundations," p. 156.
[147] Ibid., p. 157.


Insert the proper conjunction in each blank, if a conjunction is
needed. Do not confine your choice to those mentioned above:

1. Roland was mild and modest, —— Charles was coarse and boastful.
2. —— they were without provisions, they thought they should starve.
3. In Addison's day innumerable vices were prevalent, —— chief among them was the custom of drinking.
4. Charles was a large, brawny fellow, —— Orlando was a slender youth.
5. When the barn was full of people, the doors were suddenly shut and bolted —— the barn was set on fire.
6. Hereward's men wanted booty, —— Hereward took them to the Golden Borough.
7. He read a short —— interesting account of "Theobald's."
8. Longfellow received a good education —— he was not a poor boy.
9. He was disappointed in the speed of his yacht, —— he had expected her to be very fast.
10. The man said "to sell" was not needed on the sign —— no one would expect the hats to be given away.
11. There is no doubt —— the earth is spherical.
12. I know very little about the "Arabian Nights" —— I have never read that book.
13. When Gulliver began to pull, the ships would not move —— their anchors held them.
14. He had to be cautious in using his Bible —— at that time reading it was prohibited; —— he fastened it with tapes on the underside of a stool.
15. The Liberal Arts Building at Chicago had twice as much iron in its frame —— the Brooklyn Bridge.
16. The lumbermen must keep open a road to the railroad, —— all their provisions must be brought from the city.
17. Scarcely had I thrown in my line —— I felt a nibble.
18. The fly seems to have been created for no other purpose —— to purify the air.
19. At first you wonder where the boats are, —— on entering the grove you can see only a small cabin.
20. I do not doubt —— he will succeed.
21. I cannot deny —— he is honest.
22. He was dismissed, not so much because he was too young —— because he was indolent.
23. The land is equally adapted to farming —— to pasturage.
24. Proportion is —— simple —— compound.
25. I wonder —— he will come.
26. The last of the horses had scarcely crossed the bridge —— the head of the third battalion appeared on the other side.
27. He looked as —— he could play football.
28. —— I saw her, she was young —— beautiful.
29. Bruce spoke of himself as being neither Scotch —— English.
30. I could —— buy —— borrow it.
31. He has no love —— veneration for his superiors.
32. There was no place so hidden —— so remote —— the plague did not find it.
33. We need not, —— do not, complain of our lot.
34. He could not deny —— he had borrowed money.
35. There is no question —— the universe has bounds.
36. A corrupt government is nothing else —— a reigning sin.
37. She thinks, I regret to say, of little else —— clothes.
38. O fairest flower, no sooner blown —— blasted.
39. There is no other hat here —— mine.
40. —— you have come, I will go with you.
41. —— Virgil was the better artist, Homer was the greater genius.
42. He has not decided —— he will let me go to college.
43. Sheep are white —— black.
44. The King has no arbitrary power; your Lordships have not —— the Commons; —— the whole Legislature.
45. No tie of gratitude —— of honor could bind him.
46. She had no sooner arrived —— she prepared to go boating.
47. Scarcely had she left the house —— she returned.
48. He was punished, —— he was guilty.
49. He was punished, —— he was not guilty.
50. We cannot go —— we finish our task.
51. —— the rain came down in torrents, we started for the lake.
52. She could —— dance —— sing, —— she played the piano.
53. I do not know —— I shall walk —— ride.
54. Hardly had he left the room —— the prisoner attempted to escape.
55. The chances are ten to one —— he will forget it.
56. Stand up so —— you can be seen.

Omitted Conjunctions.—Careless writers sometimes omit conjunctions that are necessary either to the grammar or to the sense. A common form of this fault is illustrated in "This is as good if not better than that"—a sentence in which "as" is omitted after "as good." The best way to correct the sentence is to recast it, thus: "This is as good as that, if not better."


Correct the faults in these sentences:

1. Ralph is as young or younger than Harry.
2. Cedar is more durable but not so hard as oak.
3. I never heard any one speak more fluently or so wittily as he.
4. She is fairer but not so amiable as her sister.
5. Though not so old, he is wiser than his brother.

Redundant Conjunctions.[148] Careless writers sometimes insert conjunctions that are useless or worse than useless. A common form of this fault is the use in certain cases of "and" or "but" before the words "who," "which," "when," or "where," which are themselves connectives: as, "The challenge was accepted by Orlando, a young man little known up to that time, but to whom Rosalind had taken a great liking." If the relative clause introduced by "who," "which," "when," or "where" is to be joined to a preceding relative clause, the conjunction is proper: as, "The challenge was accepted by Orlando, a young man who was little known at that time, but to whom Rosalind had taken a great liking."

[148] See "Foundations," pp. 208-211.


Which conjunctions in these sentences are redundant?—

1. I have again been so fortunate as to obtain the assistance of Dr. Jones, a teacher of great experience, and whose ideas are quite in harmony with my own.
2. Franklin had noticed for some time the extreme dirtiness of the streets, and especially of the street that he lived on.
3. This animal was considered as irresistible.
4. But how to get him there was a problem. But it was decided to convey him on one of the wagons used in carrying the Emperor's men-of-war from the woods, where they were made, to the water.
5. He forgot to pay for the wine—a shortness of memory common with such men, and which his host did not presume to correct.
6. Next came Louis, Duke of Orleans, the first prince of the blood royal, and to whom the attendants rendered homage as the future king.
7. So from all this you can see that such things are not impossible.
8. Her expression of countenance induced most persons to address her with a deference inconsistent with her station, and which nevertheless she received with easy composure.
9. Our escort consisted of MacGregor, and five or six of the handsomest, best armed, and most athletic mountaineers of his band, and whom he had generally in immediate attendance upon his own person.
10. The little town of Lambtos, Mrs. Gardiner's former home, and where she had lately learned that some acquaintance still remained.
11. He spoke in a deep and low tone, but which nevertheless was heard from one end of the hall to the other.

Misplaced Correlatives.—When conjunctions are used as correlatives, as "both-and," "either-or," each of the correlated words should be so placed as to indicate clearly what ideas are to be connected in thought. This principle is violated in "He not only visited Paris, but Berlin also." In this sentence the position of "not only" before the verb "visited" leads one to expect some corresponding verb in the second part of the sentence; in fact, however, the two connected words are "Paris" and "Berlin;" "visited" applies to both. This meaning is clearly indicated by putting "not only" before "Paris:" thus, "He visited not only Paris, but Berlin also." As a rule the word after the first correlative should be the same part of speech as the word after the second correlative.


Correct the errors of position in

1. Few complaints were made either by the men or the women.
2. Search-lights are not useful only on ships, but also on land.
3. Adversity both teaches to think and to be patient.
4. My uncle gave me not only the boat, but also taught me to row it.
5. The prisoner was not only accused of robbery, but of treason.
6. The wise ruler does not aim at the punishment of offenders, but at the prevention of offences.
7. The king was weak both in body and mind.
8. He either is stupid or insolent.
9. He worked not to provide for the future, but the present.
10. Every composition is liable to criticism both in regard to its design and to its execution.
11. The gods are either angry or nature is too powerful.
12. We are neither acquainted with the Doctor nor with his family.
13. In estimating the work of Luther, we must neither forget the temper of the man nor the age in which he lived.
14. The wise teacher should not aim to repress, but to encourage his pupils.
15. Such rules are useless both for teachers and pupils.
16. Her success is neither the result of cleverness nor of studiousness.



The following suggestions are made in answer to many inquiries from teachers who perceive the rare excellence of the "Foundations of Rhetoric," but who do not clearly see, because of the novel method of the book, how to turn its merits to account in their class-rooms. The suggestions outline one way in which the book has been used to great advantage.

It should never be forgotten that the illustrative sentences in the "Foundations" have no value except as they help the student to grasp a principle that he can apply in his own use of language. In every case the emphasis should be laid on the principle which is announced or illustrated. Merely learning the corrected sentences by heart is useless and should not be permitted.

In taking a class over PART I., which treats of words, it is the writer's practice to assign a short lesson—from one to three pages—in connection with every recitation in English. The leading ideas and most typical sentences in each lesson are privately marked in the teacher's book with colored pencil, so that they may readily catch his eye, and from five to twelve minutes of each recitation period are taken up with a rapid questioning on these leading ideas and typical sentences. Corrections or answers unaccompanied by reasons are not accepted. Attention is always fixed, not on the form of the illustrative sentence, but on the principle of usage under discussion. Pupils would rather commit to memory the sentences than trouble themselves about reasons; but they will master reasons when they find they must. After principles have been mastered, exercises in the choice of forms and words are needed in order that knowledge may be converted into habit.

In PARTS II. and III. the lessons are equally short and the emphasis is unceasingly laid on the question "Why?" If the subject is difficult, it is desirable, at the time that the lesson is assigned, to lead the class over the text and some of the illustrative sentences in order to open, as it were, the eyes of the pupils. Since these parts of the book treat not of single words, but of sentences and paragraphs, recitations on them seem to call for the use of pencil or chalk. One successful teacher conducts the recitation with books open, requiring her pupils to cover the correct sentences with a strip of paper while they explain and correct the faults in the incorrect sentences. The writer's practice is to paste the faulty sentences on cards of convenient size and thickness—the arrangement of columns is such that the sentences can all be cut from one old book—and to distribute them among eight or ten pupils at the beginning of the recitation hour. While other matters are being attended to, these pupils write the sentences in correct form on the blackboard, and, when the time comes, give their reasons for the changes which they have made. Their work is discussed, if necessary, by the whole class. Reviews and written tests should be frequent. As fast as the various principles explained and illustrated in PARTS II. and III. are studied, the attention of pupils should be immediately turned to their own writing. It will be far more profitable for them to correct their own offences against clearness, force, ease, and unity than to correct similar offences committed by others. For this reason the PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN ENGLISH contains no exercises on the subjects discussed in PARTS II. and III. of the "Foundations."


A, an, or the, 12.
Abbot, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Abbreviations, 22.
Ability, capacity, distinguished, 29.
Abundance, plenty, distinguished, 32.
Accept, except, distinguished, 99.
Acceptance, acceptation, distinguished, 25.
Access, accession, distinguished, 25.
Accredit, credit, distinguished, 92.
Actor, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Acts, actions, distinguished, 25.
Adherence, adhesion, distinguished, 29.
ADJECTIVES, 109-133; defined, 109; vulgarisms in the use of, 109-113; singular and plural, 110; adjective or adverb, 113-116; redundant, 117-118; misused, 119-129; use of the comparative and superlative degrees, 129-131; adjectives incapable of comparison, 131-132; misplaced, 132-133.
Admit, confess, distinguished, 95.
Advance, advancement, distinguished, 25.
ADVERBS, 109-133; defined, 109; vulgarisms in the use of, 109-113; adverb or adjective, 113-116; redundant, 117-118; misused, 119-129; use of the comparative and superlative degrees, 129-131; adverbs incapable of comparison, 131-132; misplaced, 132-133; between to and the infinitive, 133.
Advise distinguished from advertise, 99; from persuade, 100.
Affect, effect, distinguished, 99.
Affirm, claim, maintain, distinguished, 94-95.
Afraid, scared, distinguished, 124.
Aggravating, irritating, distinguished, 119.
Ain't, 71.
Alienisms, defined, 10.
Alight, light, distinguished, 62.
All distinguished from the whole, 23; from each, 56; after comparatives, 129.
Allege, affirm, assert, etc., distinguished, 94.
Alleviate, relieve, distinguished, 99.
Allow, admit, think, distinguished, 99.
Allude to, refer to, mention, distinguished, 99.
Allusion, illusion, delusion, distinguished, 25.
Almost, most, distinguished, 109.
Alone, only, distinguished, 116.
Alumnus, alumna, plural of, 20.
Americanisms, defined, 10.
Among, between, distinguished, 134.
Amount, quantity, number, distinguished, 29.
Analysis, plural of, 20.
And, 143.
Anglicisms, defined, 10.
Angry, mad, distinguished, 123.
Antagonize, oppose, distinguished, 94.
Anticipate, expect, suspect, distinguished, 101.
Any, with comparatives and superlatives, 129.
Any one, number of, 58; distinguished from either, 55-56.
Apparently, evidently, manifestly, distinguished, 122.
Appear, materialize, distinguished, 95.
Apt, likely, liable, distinguished, 119.
Archaic, defined, 10.
Aren't, 71.
Argue, augur, distinguished, 99.
Argument, plea, distinguished, 29.
Arise, rise, distinguished, 92.
ARTICLES, 12-15; meaning of, 12; generic, 12; superfluous and omitted, 13.
As, clause after, often omitted in part, 45 note 2; a relative pronoun, 54; distinguished from that after same, 54; from so when correlative with as, 119-120; from like, 142.
As if preferred to as though, 144.
As well as, words joined to the subject by, 89.
Ask, demand, distinguished, 95.
Assert, allege, declare, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
Assertion, statement, distinguished, 23.
At, in, before names of places, distinguished, 134.
Augur, argue, distinguished, 99.
Auxiliary verbs, defined, 72.
Average, ordinary, distinguished, 122.
Avocation, vocation, distinguished, 25.
Awake, principal parts of, 61.
Awful, 124.

Bachelor, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Back of, 134.
Bacterium, plural of, 20.
Balance, rest, remainder, distinguished, 29.
Barbarism, defined, 10.
Barge, for omnibus, 4.
Beau, plural of, 21.
Because, for, since, distinguished, 143.
Began, begun, distinguished, 61.
Begin, principal parts of, 61; distinguished from commence, start, 100-101.
Beseech, principal parts of, 61.
Beside, besides, distinguished, 134.
Between, among, distinguished, 134.
BIBLE, quoted, 3.
Bid, principal parts of, 61.
Blow, principal parts of, 61.
Bound, determined, distinguished, 122.
Both, each, every, distinguished, 119.
Break, principal parts of, 61.
Bring, fetch, carry, distinguished, 94.
Broke, broken, distinguished, 61.
Buck, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Bullock, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Burglarize, 10.
Burst, principal parts of, 61.
But, 143.
By, with, distinguished, 134.

Calculate, intend, distinguished, 94.
Can or may, 71.
Can't, 71.
Canto, plural of, 18.
Capacity, ability, distinguished, 29.
Captivate, capture, distinguished, 92.
Carry, fetch, bring, distinguished, 94.
Case, possessive, of nouns, 17; of pronouns, 43; nominative or objective, 43-50.
Centre, middle, distinguished, 30.
CENTURY DICTIONARY, quoted, 25, 26, 32, 54, 92, 99, 116.
Champion, support, distinguished, 94.
Change of pronoun, 56-58.
Character, reputation, distinguished, 30.
CHAUCER, quoted, 72.
Cherub, plural of, 21.
Choose, principal parts of, 61.
Claim, assert, allege, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
COLERIDGE, S.T., quoted, 143.
Colloquialisms, defined, 10.
Come, principal parts of, 61.
Commence, begin, start, distinguished, 100-101.
Common, mutual, distinguished, 119.
Compare with, compare to, contrast, distinguished, 99.
Comparative and superlative, use of the, 129-131.
Comparison, adjectives and adverbs incapable of, 131-132.
Complement, compliment, distinguished, 30.
Completion, completeness, distinguished, 26.
Compound nouns, possessive of, 16; plural of, 18.
Conditional mood, 85; sentences, 85-86.
Confess, admit, distinguished, 95.
CONJUNCTIONS, 142-149; vulgarisms in the use of, 142143; misused, 143-146; omitted, 146.; redundant, 146-148; misplaced correlatives, 148-149.
Conscience, consciousness, distinguished, 30.
Construe, construct, distinguished, 99.
Continual, continuous, distinguished, 122.
Contractions, 43, 71.
Contrast, compare to, compare with, distinguished, 99.
Conversation and good use, 7.
Convince, convict, distinguished, 99.
Could, distinguished from might, 71-72; tense of the infinitive with, 79.
Council, counsel, distinguished, 30.
Countess, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Credit, accredit, distinguished, 92.
Crisis, plural of, 21.
Curriculum, plural of, 21.
Custom, habit, distinguished, 30.
Czar, feminine corresponding to, 21.

Daresn't, 71.
Datum, plural of, 21.
Deadly, deathly, distinguished, 122.
Deception, deceit, distinguished, 30.
Declare, assert, claim, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
Decided, decisive, distinguished, 122.
Delusion, illusion, allusion, distinguished, 25.
Demand, ask, distinguished, 95.
Dependent clauses, will or shall in, 73; tenses in, 78.
Depreciate, deprecate, distinguished, 92-93.
Detect, discriminate, distinguished, 99.
Determined, bound, distinguished, 122.
Dictionaries, usefulness of, 9; quoted, see CENTURY and MURRAY.
Die (noun), plurals of, 19.
Different from, different to, 134.
Disclose, discover, distinguished, 99.
Discover, invent, distinguished, 31.
Discriminate, detect, distinguished, 99.
Dive, principal parts of, 61.
Do, principal parts of, 61.
Doe, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Doesn't, 71.
Dominate, domineer, distinguished, 99.
Don't, 71.
Drake, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Drank, drunk, distinguished, 62.
Drive, principal parts of, 61; distinguished from ride, 99.
Duck, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Duke, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Dumb, stupid, distinguished, 122.
Duodecimo, plural of, 18.

Each, distinguished from all, 56; from every and both, 119; number of, 58, 89.
Earl, feminine corresponding to, 21.
EARLE, JOHN, quoted, 82.
Eat, principal parts of, 61.
Effect, affect, distinguished, 99.
Egoists, egotists; egoism, egotism, distinguished, 30.
Either, distinguished from any one, 55-56; number of, 58, 89.
Eitheror, number of the verb with singular subjects connected by, 89.
Electrocute, 10.
Elegant, 124.
Elicit, eliminate, distinguished, 100.
EMERSON, R.W., quoted, 124.
Emigration, immigration, distinguished, 30.
Eminent, prominent, distinguished, 123.
Enormity, enormousness, distinguished, 30.
Enthuse, 10.
Esteem, estimate, estimation, distinguished, nouns, 30; verbs, 100.
Every, number of, 58, 89; distinguished from each and both, 119.
Everywheres, 110.
Evidently, apparently, manifestly, distinguished, 122.
Ewe, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Except, accept, distinguished, 99.
Except, without, unless, distinguished, 142.
Existing, extant, distinguished, 122.
Expect, suspect, anticipate, distinguished, 101.
Expose, expound, distinguished, 100.
Extant, existing, distinguished, 122.

Falsity, falseness, distinguished, 31.
Fetch, bring, carry, distinguished, 94.
Fewer, less, smaller, distinguished, 109.
Figures, plural of, 19.
Find, locate, distinguished, 100.
Fish, plurals of, 19.
Flee, principal parts of, 61.
Fled, flew, flown, distinguished, 61.
Fly, principal parts of, 61.
For, because, since, distinguished, 143-144.
For, on, after wait, distinguished, 135.
Foreign origin, plural of nouns of, 20-21.
Foreignisms, defined, 10.
Forget, principal parts of, 61.
FOUNDATIONS OF RHETORIC, A.S. Hill's, 9; quoted, 6, 17, 54, 67, 61, 62, 113, 119, 133, 134, 135, 136, 143, 144.
Frances, Francis, distinguished, 21.
Freeze, principal parts of, 61.
Frighten, 100.
Froze, frozen, distinguished, 61.
Funny, odd, distinguished, 122.

Gallicisms, defined, 10.
Gander, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Gender, nouns of different, 21.
Genius, plural of, 21.
Genus, plural of, 21.
Gerunds, 50-51.
Get, principal parts of, 61.
Go, principal parts of, 61.
Good reading, the foundation of good writing and speaking, 8.
GOOD USE, 3-11; defined,6; conversation and, 7; newspapers and, 7; not to be learned from any one book or writer, 7; to be learned from good reading, 8; and from dictionaries, 9; and from books like the "Foundations of Rhetoric," 9.
Good, well, distinguished, 109.
Goose, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Gorgeous, 124.
Gotten for got, 61.
Grand, 124.
Gums for overshoes, 4.

Habit, custom, distinguished, 30.
Halo, plural of, 18.
Hang, principal parts of, 61.
Happen, transpire, distinguished, 96.
Hart, feminine of, 21.
He, him, himself, proper choice among, 43-45.
He, his, him, for mankind in general, 58.
Healthy, healthful, wholesome, distinguished, 122-123.
Heifer, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Her, herself, she, proper choice among, 43-45.
Hero, feminine corresponding to, 21.
HILL, A.S., quoted, 6, 8, 17, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 54, 61, 62, 74, 89, 92, 95, 99, 100, 113, 119, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 140, 143, 144.
Him, his, before verbal nouns, 61.
Him, himself, he, proper choice among, 43-45.
Hind, masculine corresponding to, 21.
Hire, let, lease, distinguished, 95.
His, him, before verbal nouns, 51.
Home, distinguished from house, 23; preposition before, 140.
How, 144.
Human, humane, distinguished, 123.
Hung, hanged, distinguished, 61.
Hypothesis, plural of, 21.

I, me, myself, proper choice among, 43-45.
Identity, identification, distinguished, 31.
Illusion, allusion, delusion, distinguished, 25.
Illy, 110.
Immigration, emigration, distinguished, 30.
Import, importance, distinguished, 81.
Improprieties, defined, 10.
Impugn, impute, distinguished, 93.
In, at, into, on, distinguished, 134- 135.
In addition to, words joined to the subject by, 89.
Index, plurals of, 19.
Indicative, use of the perfect, 78; indicative or subjunctive, 82-89.
Infinitive, tenses of the, 78-79; adverbs between to and the, 133.
Inquire, investigate, distinguished, 100.
Insure, secure, distinguished, 100.
Intend, calculate, distinguished, 94.
Invent, discover, distinguished, 31.
Investigate, inquire, distinguished, 100.
It, its, before verbal nouns, 51.

Junto, plural of, 18.

Laid, lay, lain, distinguished, 61-62.
Lasso, plural of, 18.
Last, latest, distinguished, 123.
Lay, lie, laid, lain, distinguished, 61-62.
Learn, teach, distinguished, 95.
Lease, let, hire, distinguished, 95.
Leave, let, distinguished, 100.
Lend, loan, distinguished, 93.
Lengthy, long, distinguished, 123.
Less, fewer, smaller, distinguished, 109.
Lesser, 110.
Let, leave, distinguished, 100.
Let, lease, hire, distinguished, 95.
Letters, plural of, 19.
Liable, likely, apt, distinguished, 119.
Lie, lay, distinguished, 61-62; principal parts of, 62.
Light, alight, distinguished, 62.
Light-complected, 110.
Lighted, lit, distinguished, 62.
Like, as, distinguished, 142.
Like, likely, probably, distinguished, 109.
Like, love, distinguished, 95.
Likely, liable, apt, distinguished, 119.
Limit, limitation, distinguished, 31.
Lion, feminine of, 21.
Loan, lend, distinguished, 93.
Locate, find, distinguished, 100.
Long, lengthy, distinguished, 123.
Lot, number, distinguished, 31.
Love, like, distinguished, 95.
Lovely, 124.

Mad, angry, distinguished, 128.
Magnificent, 124.
Manifestly, evidently, apparently, distinguished, 122.
Maintain, assert, allege, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
Majority, plurality, distinguished, 31.
Man after man, number of, 58.
Many, much, distinguished, 119.
Many a, number of, 89.
Marquis, feminine of, 21.
Materialize, appear, distinguished, 95.
May, can, distinguished, 71.
Me, myself, I, proper choice among, 43-45.
Me, my, before verbal nouns, 51.
Memento, plural of, 18.
Mention, refer to, allude to, distinguished, 99.
Middle, centre, distinguished, 30.
Might, distinguished from could, 71; tense of the infinitive with, 79.
Misplaced adjectives and adverbs, 132-133; correlatives, 148-149.
Misused nouns, 22-42; verbs, 92- 108; adjectives and adverbs, 119-129; prepositions, 134-139; conjunctions, 143-146.
Monk, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Most, almost, distinguished, 109.
Much, many, distinguished, 119.
Muchly, 110.
MURRAY'S DICTIONARY, quoted, 54, 94, 101, 119.
Must, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
Mutual, common, distinguished, 119.
My, me, before verbal nouns, 51, 52.
Myself, me, I, proper choice among, 43-45.

National use, 4-6.
Near, nearly, distinguished, 109.
Need, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
Negligence, neglect, distinguished, 31.
Neither, number of, 58, 89; distinguished from no one, 55-66.
Neithernor, number of the verb with singular subjects joined by, 89.
New, novel, distinguished, 123.
Newspapers and good use, 7.
Nobody, number of, 58.
Nominative or objective, 43-50.
No one, neither, choice between,55-56.
Nor, or, choice between, 144.
Notional verbs, defined, 72.
Nouns, 16-42; form of the possessive case, 16-17; use and misuse of the possessive case, 17-18; singular and plural, 18-21; plural forms of foreign origin, 20; gender, 21; abbreviations, 22; misused, 22-42; gerunds and verbal nouns, 50-51.
Novel, new, distinguished, 123.
Novice, novitiate, distinguished, 31.
Nowhere near, 110.
Number, singular and plural, of nouns, 18-21; of pronouns, 58-60; of verbs, 89-92; of adjectives, 110.
Number, distinguished from quantity and amount, 29; from lot, 81.
Number, quantity, amount, distinguished, 29.
Nun, masculine corresponding to, 21.

Oasis, plural of, 21.
Objective case, 43-50.
Observance, observation, distinguished, 26.
Obsolete, defined, 4,
Octavo, plural of, 18.
Odd, funny, distinguished, 122.
Of after verbal nouns, 51.
Of which, whose, choice between, 54.
Omitted articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adverbs, 117; prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146.
On, in, before names of streets, distinguished, 135.
On, for, after wait, distinguished, 135.
One, possessive and reflexive of, 56-57.
Only, distinguished from alone, 116; position of, 132.
Onto, 135.
Oppose, antagonize, distinguished, 94.
Or, nor, use of, 144.
Oral, verbal, distinguished, 123.
Ordinary, average, distinguished, 122.
Organism, organization, distinguished, 31.
Other, with comparatives and superlatives, 129.
Ought, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
Our, us, before verbal nouns, 51.
Ourselves, we, us, proper choice among, 43-46.

Parenthesis, plural of, 21.
Part, portion, distinguished, 31.
Participle, defined, 50.
Partly, partially, distinguished, 119.
Parts of verbs, principal, 61-62.
Party, person, distinguished, 23.
Penny, plurals of, 19.
Perfect indicative, 78; infinitive, 78-79.
Person, change from one to another in pronouns, 56-57.
Person, party, distinguished, 23.
Persuade, advise, distinguished, 100.
Phenomenon, plural of, 21.
Piano, plural of, 18.
Pitiable, pitiful, distinguished, 123.
Plea, argument, distinguished, 29.
Plead, principal parts of, 62.
Plenty, distinguished from abundance, 32; as adjective and adverb, 109-110.
Plural of nouns, 18-21; of pronouns, 58-60; of verbs, 89-92; of adjectives, 110.
Plurality, majority, distinguished, 31.
Portion, part, distinguished, 31.
Possessive case, of nouns, 16; of pronouns, 43.
Practicable, practical, distinguished, 123.
Predicate, predict, distinguished, 100.
Predominance, prominence, distinguished, 32.
PREPOSITIONS, 134-141; misused, 134-139; omitted, 140; redundant, 140.
Prescribe, proscribe, distinguished, 100.
Present use, 3-4.
Principal parts of verbs, 61-62.
Probably, likely, like, distinguished, 109.
Produce, product, production, distinguished, 32.
Prominence, predominance, distinguished, 32.
Prominent, eminent, distinguished, 123.
PRONOUNS, 4360; possessive case of, 43, 56; in "self," 44-45; before verbal nouns, 50-61; choice of relative, 53-55; omission of, 53-54; change of, 56-57; singular or plural, 58; omitted, 60; redundant, 60.
Proper nouns, plural of, 18; 19 note 3.
Proposal, proposition, distinguished, 26.
Propose, purpose, distinguished, 100.
Proscribe, prescribe, distinguished, 100.
Prove, principal parts of, 62.
Provincialisms, defined, 10.
Proviso, plural of, 18.
Punctuation of relative clauses, 53.
Purpose, propose, distinguished, 100.

Quantity, number, amount, distinguished, 29.
Quarto, plural of, 18.
Quite, very, distinguished, 119.

Raise, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from rise, 62.
Ram, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Rang, rung, distinguished, 62.
Real, really, very, distinguished, 124.
Receipt, recipe, distinguished, 32.
Recourse, resource, resort, distinguished, 32.
Redundant articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adjectives and adverbs, 117; prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146-147.
Refer to, allude to, mention, distinguished, 99.
Reflexive pronouns, 45, 57.
Relation, relationship, distinguished, 26.
Relative, relation, distinguished, 32.
Relative pronouns, 53-54.
Relieve, alleviate, distinguished, 99.
Remainder, rest, balance, distinguished, 29.
Repel, repulse, distinguished, 100.
Reputable use, 6.
Reputation, character, distinguished, 30.
Requirement, requisite, requisition, distinguished, 32.
Resort, resource, recourse, distinguished, 32.
Rest, remainder, balance, distinguished, 29.
Ride, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from drive, 4, 99.
Rise, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from raise, 62; from arise, 92.
Run, principal parts of, 62.

Same as, same that, distinguished, 64.
Sang, sung, distinguished, 62.
Sank, sunk, distinguished, 62.
Sat, set, sit, 62.
Scared, afraid, distinguished, 124.
Second, secondly, distinguished, 110.
Secreting, secretion, distinguished, 32.
Secure, insure, distinguished, 100.
See, principal parts of, 62.
Self, pronouns in, 44-45, 57.
Sequence of tenses, 78.
Seraph, plural of, 21.
Series, succession, distinguished, 23.
Set, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from sit, 62.
Sewage, sewerage, distinguished, 32.
Shake, principal parts of, 62.
Shall or will, 72-77.
She, her, herself, proper choice among, 43-45.
Shoe, principal parts of, 62.
Shot, plurals of, 19.
Should distinguished from would, 74, 77; in sense of ought, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
Show, principal parts of, 62.
Shrank, shrunk, distinguished, 62.
Since, for, because, distinguished, 143.
Singular and plural, nouns, 18-21; pronouns, 58-60; verbs, 89, 92; adjectives, 110.
Sit, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from set and sat, 62.
Situation, site, distinguished, 32.
Slang, defined, 10.
Slay, principal parts of, 62.
Slew, Slain, distinguished, 62.
Smaller, fewer Jess, distinguished, 109.
So or as, correlative to as, 119-120.
So, therefore, distinguished, 144.
Solecisms, defined, 10.
Solicitude, solicitation, distinguished, 26.
Solo, plural of, 18.
Some, somewhat, something, distinguished, 110.
Speak, principal parts of, 62.
Speciality, specialty, distinguished, 33.
Splendid, 124.
Spoke, spoken, distinguished, 62.
Sprang, sprung, distinguished, 62.
Staff, plurals of, 19.
Staff, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Start, begin, commence, distinguished, 100-101.
State, declare, assert, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
Statement, assertion, distinguished, 23.
Stay, stop, distinguished, 95,
Steal, principal parts of, 62.
Stiletto, plural of, 18.
Stimulant, stimulation, stimulus, distinguished, 26.
Stole, stolen, distinguished, 62.
Stop, stay, distinguished, 95.
Stratum, plural of, 21.
Stupid, dumb, distinguished, 122.
Subjunctive, 82-89; forms of, 83-84; uses of, 84-86; in conditional sentences, 85-86; in wishes, 86.
Succession, scries, distinguished, 23.
Suggestions to teachers, 151.
Sultan, feminine of, 21.
Superfluous articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adjectives and adverbs, 117-118; prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146-147.
Superlative, use of the, 129-131.
Support, champion, distinguished, 94.
Suspect, expect, anticipate, distinguished, 101.
Swam, swum, distinguished, 62.
Symbols, plural of, 19.

Tableau, plural of, 21.
Take, principal parts of, 62.
Teach, learn, distinguished, 95.
Teachers, suggestions to, 151-152.
Tense, questions of, 78-82; in conditional sentences, 85; in wishes, 86.
Testimony, verdict, distinguished, 23.
Than, clause after, often omitted in part, 45 note 2.
That distinguished from as after same, 54.
That, those, 110.
That, who, which, as relatives, 53-54.
The or a, 12.
The before verbal nouns, 51.
Thee, thyself, thou, proper choice among, 43-45.
Their, them, before verbal nouns, 51.
Them, themselves, they, proper choice among, 43-45.
Therefore, so, choice between, 144.
These, this, 110.
Thesis, plural of, 21.
They, them, themselves, proper choice among, 43-45.
This, these, 110.
Those, that, 110.
Thou, thee, thyself, proper choice among, 43-45.
Though, 144; verbs in clauses introduced by, 86.
Throw, principal parts of, 62.
Thyself, thee, thou, proper choice among, 43-45.
Tiger, feminine of, 21.
Together with, words joined to the subject by, 89.
Torso, plural of, 18.
Transpire, happen, distinguished, 96.
Tyro, plural of, 18.

Unbeknown, 110.
Union, unity, distinguished, 33.
Unless, verbs in clauses introduced by, 86; distinguished from without and except, 142.
Us or our before verbal nouns, 51.
Us, ourselves, we, pro per choice among, 43-45.
USE 3-11; defined,6; conversation and, 7; newspapers and, 7; no one book or writer decisive of, 7-8; relation of dictionaries to, 9.
Use, present, 3-4; national, 4-6; reputable,6.

Verbal nouns, construction with, 50-51.
Verbal, oral, distinguished, 123.
VERBS, 61- 108; principal parts often misused, 61- 70; contractions, 71; may or can, 71; will or shall, 72-76; notional and auxiliary, defined, 72; would or should, 74-77; questions of tense, 78-82; indicative or subjunctive, 82-89; singular or plural, 89-92; misused, 92- 108.
Verdict, testimony, distinguished, 23.
Very, distinguished from quite, 119; from real, really, 124.
Visitor, visitant, 33.
Vocation, avocation, distinguished, 25- 26.
Vulgarisms, defined, 10; in the use of adjectives and adverbs, 109-113; of conjunctions, 142-143.

Wait for, wait on, distinguished, 135.
Wake, principal parts of, 62.
We, us, ourselves, proper choice among, 43-45.
Well, good, distinguished, 109.
WENDELL, BARRETT, quoted, 7- 8.
Went, gone, distinguished, 61.
What as a relative pronoun, 54.
When, while, distinguished, 144.
Which, who, that (relative), proper choice among, 53-55.
Who, whom, choice between, 43-45.
Who, which, that (relative), proper choice among, 53-55.
Whoever, whomever, choice between, 45.
Whole, all, distinguished, 23.
Wholesome, healthy, healthful, distinguished, 122-123.
Whose, of which, choice between, 54.
Will or shall, 72-76.
Wishes, moods and tenses in, 86.
Witch, masculine corresponding to, 21.
With, words joined to the subject by, 89; distinguished from by, 134.
Without, except, unless, distinguished 142.
Wizard, feminine corresponding to 21.
Would or should, 74-77.
Write, principal parts of, 62.