Guide to Historic Plymouth: Localities and Objects of Interest

Guide to Historical Plymouth: Localities and Objects of Interest

Historical Plymouth

Localities and Objects of Interest



Copyrighted, and Published By

Copyright, 1920, by A. S. Burbank.
Printed by the Memorial Press.

Beach Point 64
Burial Hill 49
Church of the First Parish 48
Church of the Pilgrimage 47
Clark’s Island 80
Cole’s Hill 39
Compact 82
Court House 25
Gov. Bradford’s House in 1621 46
Gurnet 37
Harbor 64
Industries 77
Landing of the Pilgrims 36
Leyden Street 41
Manomet Bluffs 60
Members of the Mayflower Company 83
Morton Park 67
National Monument Frontispiece and page 8
North Street 33
Old Fort and First Meeting House, 1621 59
Old Houses 70
Pilgrim Antiquities 16-25
Pilgrim Hall 13
Plymouth as a Summer Resort 79
Plymouth High School 73
Plymouth in 1627 45
Plymouth Rock 31
Post Office 44
Prison 30
Public Library 74
Registry Building 27
The Town 73
Town Brook 69
Town Square 46
Voyage of the Mayflower Shallop 65
Watch Tower 61
Watson’s Hill 61



Historic Plymouth

“The Pilgrim Fathers—where are they?

The waves that brought them o’er

Still roll in the bay, and throw their spray,

As they break along the shore.”

Illustrated capital

The introduction of visitors to Plymouth as they come by rail, is at Seaside, a station in the extreme north part of the town, at the dividing line between Kingston and Plymouth. As the cars slow up passengers see the beautiful panorama of Plymouth Harbor spread out before their eyes. At the near left, across the bay appears Captain’s Hill, so called from its being the home of Capt. Myles Standish, and on its crest is a monument in honor of the Pilgrim warrior, surmounted by his statue fourteen feet in height. Farther along is seen Rouse’s Hummock, the American terminus of the French Atlantic cable. The next prominent object is Clark’s Island, where the Pilgrims spent their first Sabbath in Plymouth. Next to this is the headland of Saquish, and beyond is the Garnet with its twin lighthouses. Opposite these the bold bluff of Manomet thrusts itself out into the bay, while nearer inland the long, thin ribbon of Plymouth Beach runs across the harbor, like an artificial breakwater, to arrest the waves of the ocean.




Few scenes can surpass this in loveliness, if the visitor is fortunate enough to arrive when the tide is in. Although by the configuration of the land Plymouth Harbor seems to have been designed for a perfect haven against every wind that blows, unfortunately it is dependent upon a full sea for depth enough of water to float vessels of large draft to the wharves. With the assistance of the State of Massachusetts a channel 150 feet wide with eighteen feet depth at mean 7 low water, was opened in 1913 from Beach Point to the fine new stone pier of the Plymouth Cordage Co., and by it that great industrial plant now brings its fibre, for manufacture, direct from Mexico to its mills in steamships of 3500 tons measurement. In 1876 the United States Government dug a small channel from Broad channel to the wharves, where none had existed. In 1914-15 the Government and State co-operated in improving the old “Mayflower channel,” from deep water at Beach Point along the inside of the Beach and up Broad channel to the town wharves, so that for the entire distance there is a width of 200 feet and depth of 18 feet at mean low water. This allows steamers and light draft vessels to land at any time of tide, while at high water barges and heavy freight carriers drawing 25 feet or more can have easy access to the piers. These harbor improvements accommodate any vessels that can pass through the Cape Cod Canal which opens into the bay 16 miles below Plymouth and are of great advantage to the Pilgrim port. Other important changes of the water front and harbor may develop previous to the tercentenary celebration of “the Landing,” to take place in 1920-21, plans and details for which are in charge of a special State Commission.

Immediately upon leaving the station of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, on arrival in Plymouth, and while traversing Old Colony park to Court street, the main street of the town, the Samoset House is in full view in the front. Looking towards the Samoset House on the way through the park the first street on its right leading from Court street is Cushman street; and the walk continued up Cushman street and little northward along Allerton street, will shortly bring the visitor to the National Monument to the Forefathers.


The National Monument to the Forefathers

Illustrated capital

The corner stone of the National Monument was laid Aug. 2, 1859, and the work entrusted to Hammatt Billings who drew the design for the Monument in all its details. The main pedestal was put in position in 1876, and in the following summer the statue of Faith was erected. The monument was completed in October, 1888, and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies August 1, 1889. It is built entirely of granite, the statues all coming from the quarries of the Hallowell Granite Company of Maine. (See frontispiece.)

The idea of building the monument to the memory of the Pilgrim Fathers was early entertained in the town, and was formed into a definite object by the incorporation of the Pilgrim Society in January, 1820; which object was kept steadily in view and prosecuted to successful conclusion.

The plan of the principal pedestal is octagonal, with four small and four large faces; from the small faces project four buttresses or wing pedestals. On the main pedestal stands the figure of Faith. One foot rests upon Forefathers’ Rock; in her left hand she holds a Bible; with the right uplifted she points to heaven. Looking downward, as to those she is addressing, she seems to call to them to trust in a higher power.


Alto Relief on National Monument.



On each of the four buttresses or wing pedestals is a seated figure; they are emblematic of the principles upon which the Pilgrims proposed to found their commonwealth. The first is Morality, holding the Decalogue in her left, and the scroll of Revelation in her right hand; her look is upward toward the impersonation of the Spirit of Religion above; in a niche, on one side of her throne, is a prophet, and in the other, one of the Evangelists. The second of these figures is Law: on one side Justice; on the other Mercy. The third is Education: on one side Wisdom, ripe with years; on the other Youth, led by Experience. The fourth figure is Freedom: on one side Peace rests under its Protection; on the other Tyranny is overthrown by its powers. Below these seated figures are marble alto-reliefs, representing scenes from the history of the Pilgrims:—the Departure from Delft Haven; the first Treaty with the Indians; Signing of the Social Compact; and the Landing at Plymouth. 11 On each of the four faces of the main pedestal is a large panel for records. That in front contains the general inscription of the monument, viz., “National Monument to the Forefathers. Erected by a grateful people in remembrance of their labors, sacrifices and sufferings for the cause of civil and religious liberty.” The right and left panel contain the names of those who came over in the “Mayflower.” The rear panel is plain, to have an inscription at some future day.


The total height of the Monument is eighty-one feet, from the ground to the top of the head of the statue of Faith. 12 The following are some of the dimensions of this great piece of work, said, on good authority, to be the largest and finest piece of granite statuary in the world: the height of the base is forty-five feet; height of statue, thirty-six feet. The outstretched arm measures from shoulder to elbow, ten feet one and one-half inches; from elbow to the tip of finger, nine feet nine inches; total length of arm, nineteen feet ten and one-half inches. The head measures around the forehead thirteen feet seven inches. The points of the star, in the wreath around the head are just one foot across. The arm, just below the short sleeve, measures six feet ten inches around; below the elbow, six feet two inches. The wrist is four feet around. The length of the finger pointing upwards is two feet one inch, and is one foot eight and one-half inches around. The thumb measures one foot eight and one-half inches around. The circumference of the neck is nine feet two inches and the nose is one foot four inches long. From centre to centre of the eyes is one foot six inches. The figure is two hundred and sixteen times life size and its weight one hundred and eighty tons. A bolt of lightning ran down the arm and figure Aug. 23, 1912, splitting and displacing two blocks of the central section. They were restored to position, without taking down the monument, by Mr. George W. Bradford, a Plymouth contractor, a feat which reflected much credit upon his engineering skill.

The statue of Faith was the gift of the late Oliver Ames, a native of Plymouth, and its cost was $31,300. The total cost of the Monument was $150,000, contributed by more than 11,000 people of the United States and other countries.


Pilgrim Hall


Illustrated capital

Returning to Court street (the main street) from the Monument grounds, and passing the head of Old Colony park, we soon see on our left a building with a Doric portico, standing a little way from the street. This is Pilgrim Hall, erected in 1824 by the Pilgrim Society as a monumental hall to the memory of the Pilgrims. In 1880, without taking down the walls, it was re-roofed and refloored with steel beams and terra cotta blocks at a cost of over $15,000 by Joseph Henry Stickney, Esq., a wealthy Baltimore merchant of Boston nativity, who on a casual visit to Plymouth became so impressed of preserving with the greatest care the interesting relics of the Pilgrims there deposited, that he most liberally made this large expenditure to secure these precious memorials from loss by fire. At the same time he provided for better classification and exhibition of the articles, those immediately connected with 14 the Pilgrims being deposited, mostly in glass cases, in the main hall, while an interesting museum of antique curiosities was arranged in the room below. Exteriorly, marked improvement was made by raising the Doric porch to the height of the main building, and repainting and sanding the whole front in imitation of stone. Quite a change was made at the same time in the front area by the removal back to the Landing-place of the portion of Plymouth Rock, which for forty-six years had here been a prominent object.

The hall is kept open daily (including Sundays in the summer season), at regular hours, for the accommodation of visitors, a fee of twenty-five cents being charged. These fees are the only income of the Pilgrim Society, the fund so accumulated being devoted to the care of the Pilgrim relics, the monuments, grounds, and historic points of the Pilgrim locality in Plymouth.

To the improvements made by Mr. Stickney, very important and extensive ones were carried out by the Society in the periods from February to May 1911, and from December 1911 to March 1912, the hall being closed to the public during the work. Everything of wood, from the basement to the roof was removed from the ante-rooms, and also from the main hall and the one beneath. With steel beams, terra cotta blocks, cement and marble, thorough work was done in fireproofing the whole structure, so that the Doric entrance portico, which is separated from the building by a thick brick wall, now remains as the only combustible part. The cost of these radical improvements, which seem to sufficiently insure the protection of the priceless collection of Pilgrim relics, was about $15,000, paid from the visitors fee fund. It is in contemplation, and plans have been prepared, for changing the Doric portico from wood to granite, with monolithic columns. About $20,000 will be needed for this much desired object, which will make Pilgrim Hall, in its 15 entirety, a complete and harmonious memorial of the Forefathers; but this laudable project will have to await the slow accumulation of an annual income from visitors fees, or the possible generous gift of a descendant or admirer of our Pilgrim ancestors.

The interior, with marble floors and wainscots, and walls freshly colored in neutral tints which set off the pictures to much advantage, now presents a very neat and attractive appearance.


In the marble vestibule hangs a large picture of the “Landing,” done in distemper, which was presented to the Society by Robert G. Shaw of Boston. At the right is the curator’s room, on the walls of which hang a portrait of King James I., together with a number of maps and local views of Plymouth, illustrative of changes which have taken place. Over the entrance to the main hall is a large gilded copy of the seal of the Colony, reproduced from the 16 “Book of Laws,” printed in 1685. The original seal was adopted probably in 1625. It was taken away during the administration of the infamous Governor Andros, and never recovered, as far as is known. This copy is supposed to have been the gift of Samuel Nicholson, of the Boston Common Council, a native of Plymouth. At the left of the entrance is the stairway to the lower hall, and the sanitary conveniences of the building.

The main hall is forty-six by thirty-nine feet, with walls twenty-two feet high, and is lighted entirely from the roof. At the east end is the large picture of the “Landing,” thirteen by sixteen feet, painted by Henry Sargent, of Boston, an amateur artist, and presented by him to the Society in 1834. Its estimated value was $3,000, and the massive frame cost about $400. At the left is a portrait of the venerable Dr. James Thacher, the first secretary of the Pilgrim Society. He was the author of Thacher’s Military Journal and a History of Plymouth, which has been considered one of the best ever published. The picture upon the right is a fine painting and most excellent likeness of the gentleman who in 1880 so disinterestedly and generously remodeled and beautified Pilgrim Hall,—Joseph Henry Stickney, Esq., of Baltimore. The portrait was painted by D. G. Pope, a Baltimore artist, and in subject and execution is worthy of its place in this Pilgrim temple. Beneath the picture the Society has placed a bronze memorial tablet in grateful remembrance of Mr. Stickney’s benefactions.

In the middle of the south wall is hung the large copy of Weir’s Embarkation from Delft Haven, from the large painting in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington, done for the Society by Edgar Parker. It is flanked by several large portraits designated in the catalogue, including one of Hon. Daniel Webster.

In the centre of the west side hangs the noble gift of 17 ex-Gov. Alexander H. Rice, of Massachusetts, Charles Lucy’s large painting of the Departure from Delft Haven. It is of great value, and at a prize exhibition in England won the first premium of a thousand guineas. It is altogether different in color and tone from either of the others, and will bear close sturdy. On its right and left are portraits of Washington and Edward Everett, with pictures of the house at Austerfield, England, where Governor Bradford was born, and the only copy extant of the earliest map of New England territory, made by William Hack about 1663.

On the north wall at the left of the entrance to the library the fine historical painting of the Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by W. F. Halsall occupies a prominent position, and grouped around it are the portraits of the Winslow family. These consist of Edward Winslow, of the Mayflower company who was Governor of Plymouth Colony in 1633-1636 and 1644. This portrait, and that of Josiah Winslow, who was born in Plymouth in 1628, son of Governor Edward, and who became the first native governor of the Colony 1673 to 1680, were probably painted in London by Robert Walker in 1651, the first is therefore regarded as undoubtedly a life-like portrait of a Mayflower Pilgrim. Others of the group are Penelope, (wife of Gov. Josiah Winslow) and Gen. John Winslow, great grandson of Gov. Edward Winslow. The general is depicted in the scarlet uniform of the British Army. He was second in command in the expedition which removed the Acadians from Nova Scotia in 1755. The house in which he lived, built in 1730, is still standing in Plymouth, on the corner of Main and North streets. It was also the home of James Warren, president of the Provincial Congress.

At the right of the library entrance hangs the original of Robert W. Weir’s Embarkation of the Pilgrims from Delft Haven, purchased by the Society in 1914. From this study, 18 Weir produced the larger painting for the Capitol rotunda at Washington. Above it is an engraving of the Sailing of the Mayflower, from Cope’s original painting, which hangs in the House of Lords in London. There are also engravings of the Signing of the Compact, and the Landing by different artists, and a colored lithograph by Allebe of a picture representing the First Religious service held by the Pilgrims, painted in 1859 by Schwarz of Amsterdam. The vessel bringing the painting to the United States was burned at sea by a Confederate privateer during the Civil War. Over the library door is The Royal Arms, which before the Revolution hung over the judges bench in the Plymouth Colonial Court House, now our old Town House, and was carried to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, by Captain Gideon White, a royal refugee of those times.

Across the head of the hall, under the Sargent picture, are important historical articles, as the Patent of Plymouth Colony, the chairs of Elder Brewster and Gov. Carver, which were brought by them in the Mayflower, the Peregrine White cradle and the Fuller cradle, a chest which belonged to Myles Standish, a carved pew back from the ancient parish church at Scrooby, a chair once owned by Gov. Winslow, and the keystone from an arch in Scrooby Manor. Just inside the door from the curator’s office is a small steel safe containing Gov. William Bradford’s bible, printed at Geneva in 1592. During visiting hours the sacred volume may be seen.

Arranged about the hall on handsome steel tables are exhibition cases of the finest plate glass in America, and in these are displayed and numbered conveniently for recognition by catalogue, very many authentic relics and personal belongings of the Pilgrims and their households. The first at the right on entering contains articles of the White family, among them a cabinet brought in the Mayflower by William White, father of Peregrine, a cane and a candlestick, 19 which he once owned, also a bond written and signed by Peregrine White, who was born on the Mayflower in Cape Cod harbor in 1620, and died in Marshfield, 1704. Next is the Alden case and in it is seen John Alden’s bible dated 1661, a halberd found in a house he once occupied in Duxbury, a deed signed by this fond lover of Priscilla, a christening bowl which belonged to Elder William Brewster, etc. The Standish case is next, and most interesting, for the reason that there is deposited the famous Damascus sword of the military Chieftain of the Pilgrims, together with a large pewter platter and iron pot which he brought in the Mayflower. There are fragments of a quilt which belonged to Rose, his wife, and a specimen of embroidery or “sampler” worked by Lorea, his daughter in 1653, with this verse:


Lorea Standish is my name,

Lord, guide my hart that I may doe Thy will:

Also fill my hands with such convenient skill

As will conduce to virtu void of shame,

And I will give the glory to thy name.


The baby cap and bib worked for her little daughter Lorea by Barbara Standish has lately been added to the collection. The sword of Myles Standish is one of the most valuable articles in Pilgrim Hall. General Grant on his visit to Plymouth, October 14, 1880, was much interested in this ancient weapon, and handled it with evident satisfaction. The Arabic inscriptions on the blade have always been a puzzle, and, notwithstanding many attempts, remained undeciphered until the visit to the town, June 7, 1881, of Prof. James Rosedale, of Jerusalem, with a troupe of Arabs from Palestine. Mr. Rosedale being an excellent linguist, was shown the sword, and pronounced the inscriptions to be of different dates; one of them in Cufic, very old, and the other in mediæval Arabic of a later period, but still very ancient. To the last he readily gave the following translation:—

With peace God ruled His slaves (creatures) and with the judgment of His arm He troubled the mighty of the wicked.

He had no doubt that the weapon dated back two or three centuries before the Christian era, and might be much older. It was captured from the Persians at Jerusalem in 637 by the Saracens, and it is probable that this famous blade came down to Capt. Standish from the Crusaders, and possessed an interesting history in his day.

The next case contains numerous valuable books and literary works of ancient date, the most precious being a copy of John Eliot’s Indian bible 1685, of which but four copies are now known to be extant. A Dutch bible and a “Breeches” bible 1599, an Indian vocabulary by Josiah Cotton, New England’s Memorial by Nathaniel Morton, and the original records of the Old Colony Club from 1769 to 1773, are also interesting.

The Winslow Case at the right of the Library entrance displays many belongings of that illustrious family, notably, 21 a part of a chest, a mortar and pewter plate, brought by Edward Winslow in the Mayflower, a gold ring and ancient trencher which belonged to Governor Edward Winslow, General John Winslow’s sword, a dressing case once owned by Penelope, wife of Governor Josiah Winslow, and bead purse wrought by that gentle lady, a pair of stiff little shoes worn by Governor Josiah Winslow when an infant, a slipper and cape once owned by Mrs. Susannah White, widow of William White, and second wife of Governor Edward Winslow, and other articles which the catalogues will identify.


The case at the left of the Library contains many papers and documents of much interest, but of especial note are swords of Gov. John Carver, Elder William Brewster and 22 Capt. Myles Standish, loaned by the Massachusetts Historical Society. A novel reminder of the days of slavery in Massachusetts is a bill of sale of a negro boy in Plymouth in 1753.

The next case has valuable autographs, note books, and a service of ancient silver tankards and goblets not now in use, but belonging to the First Church of Christ in Plymouth. There are also the first volume of the ancient records of the First Church in Plymouth, and the works of Pastor John Robinson, of Leyden.

The north ante-room is worthy attention of visitors, and contains, with other things, an old sofa formerly owned by Gov. Hancock, upon which he probably sat and plotted treason with Samuel Adams against the English crown. There are pictures of Plymouth, England, and other places in that country, of Pilgrim interest, together with various commissions, etchings, views, etc; and a case containing seven swords of notable personages, which are described in the catalogues.

A fire-proof annex for the valuable library of the Pilgrim Society was built on the northerly side of the hall in 1904, and on the steel shelves behind substantial metal lattices, found necessary to protect the books from persons of predatory inclinations, some 3000 volumes are arranged in handsome cabinets. Some of these books are very rare indeed, and if lost or destroyed could not be replaced. The oldest volume bears the imprint 1559.

Above the bookcases are portraits; among them those of Hon. Joshua Thomas, the first president of the Pilgrim Society; Hon. John Davis, editor of Morton’s New England Memorial, and former president of the Massachusetts Historical Society; and Ephraim Spooner, who was for thirty-four years deacon of the First Church, in Plymouth, and a very prominent citizen of the town. He was chairman of 23 the Selectmen through the Revolutionary War, in which capacity he rendered the country efficient service, and was likewise for fifty-one years town clerk of Plymouth. A very quaint painting is the portrait of Elizabeth Wensley, hanging over the fireplace. She was daughter of William Paddy, and was born in Plymouth 1641. Her daughter, Sarah, was the wife of Dr. Isaac Winslow, whose portrait appears in the Winslow group in the main hall. The great centre table in the library was owned by Gov. Edward Winslow, and stood in the Council Chamber when he governed the Colony. On top of one of the book cases is a model of a ship of the “Mayflower” period, illustrative of the naval architecture and rig of her time.

One of the cases at the foot of the Hall between the ante-rooms holds the gun barrel with which King Philip was killed, also the original manuscript of Mrs. Felicia Hemans’ celebrated ode, “The breaking waves dashed high,” and William Cullen Bryant’s poem, “Wild was the day, the wintry sea,” both presented by the late James T. Fields of Boston. A piece of a mulberry tree, planted in the garden of the Manor house at Scrooby by Cardinal Wolsey, and the trowel used in laying the corner stone of the National Monument to the Pilgrims, August 2, 1859, are seen in this case among other articles. In the other there is a book given to Gov. Bradford by Pastor John Robinson, brought over in the “Mayflower” by Bradford and afterwards given by him to the church. A book printed by Elder Brewster and a copy of Seneca’s works owned by Brewster likewise find place in this case, together with a copy of the first edition of “Mourt’s Relation,” written in Plymouth in 1621 and published in London in 1622.

A special case at the head of the Hall contains the oldest state document in New England, and probably in the United States. This is the first patent granted to the Plymouth 24 Colonists by the Northern Virginia Company. A patent was granted by the Virginia Company in the name of John Wincob, but never used. About the time of the departure of the Forefathers from England for this country a new company was created by a royal charter, within the limits of which Plymouth was included, and this patent dated June 1, 1621 was granted to John Pierce by the Northern Virginia Company and sent over in the “Fortune,” arriving here in November of that year. This patent was found in the land office in Boston, among a mass of old papers, by William Smith, Esq., one of the land committee. The Hon. John Davis, then editing a new edition of Morton’s New England Memorials, obtained it for his use in that book, and from him it came into the possession of the late Nathaniel Morton Davis, Esq., in whose family it remained until deposited in the hall by Mrs. William H. Whitman. It bears the seals and signatures of the Duke of Lenox, the Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl of Warwick, Lord Sheffield, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, with the exception that the seal of Hamilton is missing. A sixth signature, probably that of John Peirce, the party of the second part, is broken out of the parchment, leaving but a trace of the letter J. The seal to this signature is also torn away.

From the curator’s office a flight of stairs conducts to the basement, where all desired conveniences for visitors will be found. In the lower hall is an interesting museum of articles which have been separated from the Pilgrim collection, and as pertaining to ancient days in many instances or as curiosities will well repay examination. Among them is the frame of the “Sparrowhawk,” wrecked on Cape Cod, at Orleans, in 1626, her company finding refuge and assistance at Plymouth. Her history is remarkable, as being the first known vessel stranded on the Cape, which since that time has been the grave yard of fully 2,000 sea-going craft, 25 with a loss of hundreds of lives. A large placard attached to the old wreck gives the story. To see these remains of a vessel as old as the Mayflower, though much smaller, is very suggestive of the perils of an ocean passage in the days of the Pilgrims.

The bones of the Indian Chief Iyanough are preserved in a special case in the lower hall, together with a large brass kettle and other implements found with the skeleton which was discovered at Hyannis in Barnstable in May, 1861.

The Court House

“Though justice be thy plea, consider this,—

That in the course of justice none of us should see salvation.”

Illustrated capital

At our right hand, soon after leaving Pilgrim Hall, we see a large building with a handsome brick facade, standing a little back from the street, and fronted by a small park. This is the County Court House, erected in 1820, and remodeled in 1857. It is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the State, and the judges of the different courts give it precedence in point of beauty, convenience, etc., over all they visit. It has two entrances. The northerly one leads to a marble corridor, from which is the stairway to the large court room above, admittance to witness rooms and the Third District Court. The southerly entrance is to a corridor paved with Vermont marble, and from which leads a flight of stairs for the court, the bar, officers and jurymen, main court room, district attorney’s office, and grand jury room. On the left, below, is the room of the Clerk of Courts, with the room of the County Treasurer opposite; beyond are rooms for various uses together 26 with that of the County Commissioners, and the Law Library. The Library opens from the Commissioner’s room, and also connects by a stairway with the upper corridor.



The New Registry Building

Illustrated capital

Opposite the Court House, on Russell street, in 1904, the County erected a very fine and conveniently appointed fireproof building for the Probate Court and Registry of Deeds. The latter is on the lower floor, with a large hall for the records and necessary desks and tables to facilitate the examination of the books. There are also commodious rooms for the Register and his assistants and the corps of recorders.


In the Registry of Deeds are the earliest records of Plymouth Colony, in the handwriting of the men who are now held in reverence the world over for their courage in braving the perils of an unknown sea and an equally unknown shore, to face the dangers of savage men and savage beasts, in their 28 constancy to what they believed to be their duty, and for planting on this spot the great principles of a government by the people,—

“A church without a bishop,

A state without a king.”

Here is their writing, some of it quaint and crabbed, some fair and legible. Here, on these very pages, rested the hands fresh from handling the sword and the musket or the peaceful implements of husbandry, of Bradford and Brewster and Standish and others of that heroic band. Here is the original laying-out of the first street,—Leyden street. Here is the plan of the plots of ground first assigned for yearly use, which they called, in the tinge of the Dutch tongue they had acquired in their long residence in Holland, “meersteads.” Here are the simple and yet wise rules—laws they can hardly be called—laid down for the government of the infant colony.

Here is the order establishing jury trial in Governor Bradford’s writing, the order for the first custom laws, the division of cattle into lots, one cow being divided into thirteen lots. It was four years after the Landing before any domestic cattle were brought over, and in order to equalize them they were divided into lots, each family having one. It must have been a pretty nice affair to divide the milk of one cow among thirteen parties, to satisfy all.

Here also is the second patent to the company from the Earl of Warwick, granted in 1629, with its great wax seal engraved for the purpose, and the original box in which it came from England. Here are signatures, also, of nearly as much interest as those of the Pilgrims themselves,—the marks of the original proprietors of all these broad fields and forests, whose names are represented by signs of bows and tortoises, of reptiles and animals.


Here are also ancient deeds written in the Indian language, as put in form by Eliot and Mayo. The record clerk must have had his patience severely taxed when they were copied.

The Registry of Probate is on the second floor, where with the several offices there is a beautiful court room for the Probate sessions. The filing and registry room is a model for convenience in safe keeping and reference to papers concerning estates.

Opposite Court Square is the Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, a fine building erected in 1885-86, which is an ornamental and prominent feature of the locality.

The building at the right of the church is the Old Colony Club, instituted in 1769. Next beyond is Russell Building, in which is located the Pilgrim Bookstore, where will be found a large and varied collection of souvenirs, views of interesting localities, books of Pilgrim story and history, post cards and mementos of a visit to “Pilgrim Land.”



The Prison

“I stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs—

A palace and a prison on each hand.”

Illustrated capital

In the rear of the Court House stands the former County Prison, a substantial brick building, with granite trimmings. It is now used for temporary detention of prisoners at trial, and by agreement with the Commissioners the town of Plymouth leases a portion of the building for a police station.


In May, 1908, the County purchased a large farm at the south part of the town, and erected suitable buildings of cement concrete, and prisoners convicted of minor offences are there kept at work with the design of making the penal institution self-supporting, as well as contributing to the health and general welfare of offenders detained for short 31 terms. The new prison is light, commodious and airy, and has 140 cells for men, and 12 for women. The number of prisoners averages about 120, about half of them being “trusties,” who perform the farm labor cheerfully, with but little oversight other than that necessary for direction. The prisoners were transferred from the old jail in the middle of July, 1911. Sheriff Earl P. Blake rules humanely but firmly, and is as popular with his criminal household as he is throughout the county. This rational employment of prison labor for self support, is working splendidly, and the farm, the first of the kind in this country to be established on such a basis, is visited with much interest by officials connected with the criminal institutions of this and other states for the purpose of learning the methods of administration.

The Rock

“A rock in the wilderness welcomed our sires

From bondage far over the dark rolling sea;

On that holy altar they kindled the fires,

Jehovah, which glow in our bosoms for thee.”

Illustrated capital

Continuing our way along Court Street a little farther, we come to North Street, at which point the name of the main thoroughfare changes to Main Street, the business section of the town. Turning down North Street, leading to the water, in a little distance we come to the brow of the hill. On the left, Winslow Street winds northward, and on it we see an old mansion, partially hidden by two noble old linden trees. This house was built by Edward Winslow, brother to Gen. John Winslow in 1754. He had the frame got out in England and brought over for 32 this purpose. The trees in front were planted by his daughter about 1760. Additions were made to the house in 1898, which is now owned and occupied by Mrs. C. L. Willoughby.


Descending the hill to the harbor front at our right a short distance we see a beautiful and artistic structure of granite in the shape of a canopy, supported on four columns, and under this is the Rock, now world-famous. (At this writing in 1919, the comprehensive plans of the Tercentenary Commission contemplate displacing commercial structures and improving the harbor front in the vicinage of the Rock.) The upper portion of the renowned boulder, nearly all of that which is now in sight, was for one hundred and six years separated from the original Rock, and during this long period occupied localities remote from the Landing-place. In 1774, during the series of events leading to the Revolution, an attempt to raise the Rock for transportation to Town Square disclosed the fact that the upper portion had become separated from the lower, probably through action of frost. It was taken to the Square where it was deposited at the foot of a liberty pole from which waved a flag bearing the motto, “Liberty or death.”





It remained there until 1834, when at a celebration of the Fourth of July it was carried in procession to Pilgrim Hall, deposited in the front area, and inclosed by an iron fence. Here the separated part of the Rock remained forty-six years, its incongruous position away from the water not being understood by visitors without lengthy explanation. Mr. Stickney, the gentleman by whose liberality the alterations in Pilgrim Hall were being made in the summer of 1880, recognized the impropriety of this condition, and proposed reuniting the parts at the original Landing-place. The Pilgrim Society readily acceded to this proposition, and accordingly on Monday, Sept. 27, 1880, without ceremony, this part of the Rock was placed beneath the Monumental Canopy at the waterside, the reunited pieces, after a separation of one hundred and six years, probably now presenting much the same appearance as when the Pilgrim shallop grazed its side. As to the identity of this Rock, and the certainty of its being the very one consecrated by the first touch of Pilgrim feet on 35 this shore, there is not the slightest loophole for a doubt. Ancient records, now accessible, refer to it as an object of prominence on the shore, before the building of the wharf about it in the year 1741. Thomas Faunce, the elder of the church, who was born in 1647 and died in 1746, at the age of 99, was the son of John Faunce, who came over in the “Ann” in 1623. At the age of ninety-five years hearing that the Rock, which from youth he had venerated was to be disturbed, he visited the locality, related the history of the Rock as told him by his father and contemporary Pilgrims, and in the presence of many witnesses declared it to be that upon which the Forefathers landed in 1620. Thus it has been pointed out and identified from one generation to another, and from the days of the first comers to the present time. Not a shadow of distrust rests upon it as being the identical spot where the first landing was effected on the shore of Plymouth.

About a century and three-fourths have elapsed since Elder Faunce gave his personal testimony, and the lives of two or three elderly people cover that period, so the evidence is of positive rather than traditional character.

The Rock was originally a solid boulder of about seven tons, and undoubtedly a glacial deposit. It is greenish syenite, very hard, and bears high polish when its fragments are worked for various purposes.


The Landing

The landing
Illustrated capital

Let us picture to ourselves the scene on that Monday morning, when, after the rest on Clark’s Island they came in their shallop to inspect the new country that they had providentially found. The wharves and buildings and every trace of civilization vanish. All is wild and unknown. Across the harbor comes the boat and every eye anxiously and keenly scanning the strange shore to discover the presence of human beings, who will be sure to be enemies. They coast along the shore by cliff and lowland, hand on weapon, every sense alert for the expected warwhoop and attack, a steep and sandy cliff, (Cole’s Hill) the base of which is washed by the water meets their eyes; at its foot a great boulder, brought from some far-away coast by a glacier, in some long-gone age. Oval in form, with a flat top, it seems the very place to bring the great clumsy boat up to, as from its crest they can spring to the shore, dry-shod, a matter which, after their previous wading in the ice-cold water at the Cape, is of no small moment. The shallop is steered to its side; the company steps upon the Rock, and the Landing of the Forefathers, now so reverently commemorated, is completed. Look along the shore at this day, north or south, and you may see cliffs as 37 Cole’s Hill was then, with the mouth of Town Brook near by the Rock, which later made a safe little harbor for their boats in the rear of the dwellings which they erected on the south side of Leyden Street. Divested of romance thrown around it by time, it should be remembered that the “Landing,” Dec. 21, 1620, was that of the exploring party which had coasted around the bay, the “Mayflower” then being in Cape Cod Harbor.


This party was made up of “ten of their principal men,” according to Bradford, whose names, as given in “Mourt’s Relation,” were Captain Standish, Governor Carver, William Bradford, Edward Winslow, John Tilley, Edward Tilley, John Howland, from Leyden; with Richard Warren, Stephen Hopkins and Edward Dotey from London, and also two of the Pilgrim’s seamen, John Allerton and Thomas English. In addition to these, Captain Jones of the “Mayflower” sent three of his seamen, with his two mates and pilots named Clarke and Coppin. The master gunner of the ship by importunity also got leave to accompany them. Thus the shallop contained eighteen men, twelve of the “Mayflower” company and six of Jones’ men.

According to “Mourt’s Relation,” the exploring party, having landed from the Rock, “marched also into the land 38 and found divers cornfields and little running brooks, a place very good for situation. So we returned to our Ship again with good news to the rest of the people, which did much comfort their hearts.”

The “Mayflower” weighs her anchor, Dec. 26, 1620, and spreading sail moves across the bay. Feeling carefully their way, they pass the Gurnet and navigate along the channel inside the beach, until in the wide bend towards the town just above the present Beach wharf, as is believed by those who have studied the situation, the anchor is dropped, not to be again disturbed until the following spring. But the location is not yet settled. Some, with the alarm of the recent encounters vividly impressed upon them, think the Island, surrounded by water and easily defended, would be a good place. Jones river, sending its unimpeded waters to meet the waves of the bay, attracts the attention of others. “So in the morning, after we had called on God for direction, we came to this resolution, to go presently ashore again, and to take a better view of two places which we thought most fitting for us; for we could not now take time for further search or consideration, our vituals being much spent, especially our beer, and it being now the 19th of December (old style). After our landing and visiting the places, so well as we could, we came to a conclusion, by most voices, to set on a high ground, where there is a great deal of land cleared, and hath been planted with corn three or four years ago; and there is a very sweet brook runs under the hillside, and many delicate springs of as good water as can be drunk, and where we may harbor our shallops and boats exceedingly well; and in this brook fish in their season; on the further side of the river also much corn ground cleared. In one field is a great hill on which we point to make a platform, and plant our ordance, which will command all around about. From thence we may see into the 39 bay, and far into the sea; and we may see thence Cape Cod. Our greatest labor will be the fetching of our wood, which is half a quarter of an English mile; but there is enough so far off. What people inhabit here we yet know not, for as yet we have seen none. So there we made our rendezvous, and a place for some of our people, about twenty, resolving in the morning to come all ashore and to build houses.”

Cole’s Hill

“Not Winter’s sullen face,

Not the fierce, tawny race

In arms arrayed,

Not hunger shook their faith;

Not sickness’ baleful breath,

Not Carver’s early death,

Their souls dismayed.”

Illustrated capital

Ascending the broad flight of steps leading to the brow of the hill, and turning to the left, we tread upon sacred, hallowed ground. Here were buried, in that dark, sad winter in which they landed, half of their little band. The terrible tale is told concisely by the narrator already quoted. “This month (March) thirteen of our number die. And in three months past dies half our company—the greatest part in the depth of winter, wanting houses and other comforts, being afflicted with the scurvy and other diseases which their long voyage and unaccommodate condition brought upon them, so as there die sometimes two or three a day. Of a hundred persons scarce fifty remaining; the living scarce able to bury the dead; the well not sufficient to tend the sick, there being in their time of greatest distress, but six or seven, who spare no pains to help them.” They buried them on this hill, and levelled the graves, and in the spring following planted grain above them, that the Indians might not know the extent of their great loss.



At four different times the remains have been discovered. In 1735, in a great rain, the water, rushing down Middle Street to the harbor, caused a deep gully there, exposing human remains and washing them into the sea. In 1855, workmen engaged in digging trenches for the water works found parts of five skeletons. The graves were in the roadway, about five rods south of the foot of Middle Street. One of the skulls was sent to a competent anatomist in Boston, and was pronounced to be of the Caucasian race. The remains were carefully gathered and placed in a metallic box, properly inscribed, and interred on Burial Hill, subsequently being deposited in the chamber of the canopy over the Rock, at its completion in the year 1867. Again, on the 8th of October, 1883, during grading on the hill, other remains were found which were carefully removed, and afterwards, on the 20th of November, enclosed in a lead box and re-interred on the precise spot of their original burial. Directly over the grave a granite slab has been placed by order of the town, bearing an appropriate inscription. On the 27th of November, 1883, 41 others still were found which lie undisturbed near the last, and their exact resting-place is designated on the memorial slab above mentioned. Cole’s Hill has other histories, also. From the first days its position above and commanding the harbor led to its being selected as a place of defence. In 1742 the General Court granted a sum of money to the town to erect a battery here. In 1775, the old defence having gone to decay, a new one was built and manned, and continued to be kept up during the war. In 1814 still another fort was thrown up here, and placed in charge of companies of soldiers stationed in the town. In 1915-16 the brow of the hill southeast of Middle Street was filled off, continuing the esplanade from North to Leyden Street, much improving former conditions. (Extensive changes are about to be made on the level of the hill, and the Pilgrim graves recovered from the highway and properly marked.)

Leyden Street

(Originally named First Street, afterwards in the Records called Great and Broad Street; named Leyden Street in 1823.)

“There first was heard the welcome strain

Of axe and hammer, saw and plane.”

Illustrated capital

Walking around the brow of the hill through Carver Street, we pass the handsome vestry of the Baptist church, built in 1915, and next the Universalist church, erected in 1826 on the spot where stood the ancient Allyne House, one of the last of its architecture to disappear in the colony. Standing on this elevation, we can see the reason for the selection of this place for the settlement. There below us, are the waters of “the very sweet brook,” into which the “many delicate springs” still continue to run. 42 How sweet they must have tasted to the palates of those poor stormtossed wayfarers, who for months had been drinking the ship’s stale water! Sweet and pure they are now as they were then. Then the brook came to the sea in its natural wildness, unfettered by bridge or dam. Where it met the waters of the ocean was quite a wide estuary, so that before the lower bridge was built schooners of considerable size were wintered here nearly up to the second bridge. Beyond it is the land where there was “much corn land cleared.” Just below the junction of Carver and Leyden streets they built their first building, a “common house.” In 1801, in digging a cellar at that place, several tools and a plate of iron were found, which without doubt were in this “common house.” This house was about twenty feet square, and thatched. It took fire in the roof Jan. 14, 1621, and the thatch was burnt. It was a common log house, such as built now by Western pioneers, and probably was not used many years. These articles found were probably left in it unnoticed when vacated and only came to light when the little colony to whom they were so useful had expanded into a great nation. A sign and bronze tablet now mark this spot.

“Mourt’s Relation” furnishes us an interesting record:—

“Thursday, the 28th (old style) of December, so many as could went to work on the hill, where we proposed to build our platform for our ordnance, and which doth command all the plain and the bay, and from whence we may see far into the sea, and might be easier impaled, having two rows of houses and a fair street. So in the afternoon we went to measure out the grounds; and first we took notice how many families there were, willing all single men that had no wives to join with some family, as they thought fit, so that we might build fewer houses; which done, and we reduced them to nineteen families.

“To greater families we alloted larger plots; to every 43 person half a pole in breadth and three in length, and so lots were cast where every man should lie; which was done and staked out,” and this was laying out of Leyden Street, so named in 1823. An unfinished plan of this street is to be seen on the old records of the Colony, at the Registry of Deeds. The full plot of the little settlement was about as shown in the annexed line drawing.

Settlement plot
Burial Hill.
The Brook Edw Winslow. Town Square. Gov. Bradford.
Francis Cooke.
Mr. Isaac Allerton.
John Billington.
A Highway leading to Town Brook. King St. now Main St.
Mr. William Brewster. First Street—now Leyden St. Stephen Hopkins.
John Goodman. John Howland.
Peter Brown. Samuel Fuller.
Common House. Cole’s Hill
First Burial Place.
The Harbor


Continuing up Leyden street to Main street, we pass on our left the U. S. Government post office and custom house building, a handsome Colonial edifice completed in 1915. This site is peculiarly and historically appropriate for the Federal building, as it is the lot assigned to William Brewster, Dec. 28, 1620, (old style), in the laying out just described. He was the elder or spiritual teacher of the Pilgrims, so on his homestead where he taught religious liberty which distinguishes our country, the Nation places its representative cornerstone—a most happy coincidence of the marking of Colonial and National beginnings. The public fountain at the corner gives invitation to “freely drink and quench your thirst” from the Pilgrim Spring on the Brewster meerstead, the water of which is sent by electric power from the cool, copiously gushing source near the bank of Town Brook, 200 feet away.


Plymouth in 1627

Illustrated capital

In 1627, Isaac DeRaiseres, an officer from the Dutch Colony of New Netherland, now New York, visited Plymouth, and in a letter to Holland sends the following description of appearance of the place:—

Pilgrims and stronghouse

“New Plymouth lies on the slope of a hill stretching east toward the sea coast, with a broad street about a cannon shot of eight hundred (yards) long, leading down the hill, with a (street) crossing in the middle northwards to the rivulet and southwards to the land.[1] The houses are constructed of hewn planks, with gardens also enclosed behind and at the sides with hewn planks, so that their houses and court-yards are arranged in very good order, with a stockade against a sudden attack; and at the ends of the street are three wooden gates. In the centre, on the cross street, stands the Governor’s house, before which is a square enclosure, upon which four patereros (steen-stucken) are mounted, so as to flank along the streets. Upon the hill they have a large square house, with a flat roof, made of thick sawn planks, stayed with oak beams, upon the top of which they have six cannons, which shoot iron balls of four and five pounds, and command the surrounding country.”

[1]An error in statement of the points of the compass is here evident. It should be “southwards to the rivulet and northwards to the land.”

Town Square

Illustrated capital

Above Main and Market streets we enter Town Square, shaded by its noble elms, planted in 1784. On the corner of Main Street, a large building was built in 1875 by Mayflower Lodge I. O. O. F., covering the spot on which stood the house of William Bradford, so many years, the Pilgrim governor. It was burned January 10, 1904, and the “Governor Bradford Building,” a handsome brick structure with stores and offices took its place. A bronze tablet calls attention to the locality.


Above this is the Congregational Church, known as the “Church of the Pilgrimage.”

The present building was erected in 1840, and stands very near the site of the First Meeting-house in Plymouth, built in 1638. A tablet on the front of the church bears the following inscription:—


This tablet is inscribed in grateful memory of the Pilgrims and of their successors who, at the time of the Unitarian controversy in 1801, adhered to the belief of the Fathers, and on the basis of the original creed and covenant perpetuated, at great sacrifice, in the Church of the Pilgrimage, the evangelical faith and fellowship of the Church of Scrooby, Leyden, and the “Mayflower,” organized in England in 1606.


Opposite is an old building, now the Town House, on which is a historical bronze tablet. It was built in 1749 as a court house, the town contributing a part of the cost for the privilege of using it. When the new court house was built, in 1820, this old colonial building was purchased by the town and in it most of the town officers are located, also public sanitary conveniences. At the head of the square is the First Parish Church, the original church of the Pilgrims.

The first “Meeting-house,” as the Pilgrims called church edifices, to distinguish them from houses of worship of the 48 established church, has been proved, by the investigations of Mr. W. T. Davis, to have stood on the north side of the square, near the spot occupied by the present Governor Bradford building. Of this we know but little, except that it was erected in 1638, (the Forefathers before that time worshipping in the fort on the hill), and had a bell. In 1683 a new building was erected, not on the same lot, but farther out at the head of the square. This was forty-five by forty feet, sixteen feet in the walls, had a Gothic roof, diamond window glass and a bell.

In 1744, still another church was built on or near the same site. This remained until 1830, when a Gothic edifice was erected. This stood farther up the hill than the previous one, and was destroyed by fire Nov. 22, 1892. The present stone building was completed and dedicated on December 21, 1899, and has on its front, tablets designating it as the first church. Its entrance portal is a fine reproduction of the arched doorway of the old church at Austerfield, England, in which Gov. Bradford was christened.



Burial Hill

“The Pilgrim Fathers are at rest;

When Summer’s throned on high,

And the world’s warm breast is in verdure dressed,

Go, stand on the hill where they lie.”

Illustrated capital

Beyond and above Town Square stretches the verdant slope consecrated from the earliest years of the colony as a place of sepulture. Here repose the ashes of those who survived the first winter. “In one field a great hill, on which we point to make a platform and plant our ordnance, which will command all round about. From thence we may see into the bay and far into the sea.” Marble tablets mark the location of the Old Fort and Watch Tower, while numerous stones and monuments, which can easily be deciphered, point out resting places of Pilgrims and descendants.


The marble obelisk in memory of Gov. William Bradford, the second governor, with its Hebrew text, now difficult to 50 decipher, but translated by good authority to read: “Let the right hand of the Lord awake,” together with a Latin inscription, freely rendered: “Do not basely relinquish what the Fathers with difficulty attained,” erected in 1825, is near to us, and around it are numerous stones, marking the graves of his descendants. On the south side of the Governor’s obelisk is inscribed:

H I William Bradford of Austerfield Yorkshire England. Was the son of William and Alice Bradford, He was Governor of Plymouth Colony from 1621 to 1633 1635 1637 1639 to 1643 1645 to 1657


On the north side:

Under this stone rest the ashes of William Bradford a zealous Puritan & sincere Christian Gov. of Ply. Col. from 1621 to 1657, (the year he died) aged 69, except 5 yrs, which he declined.

A little back, on a path to the rear entrance to the hill is the oldest stone in the cemetery. It must be remembered 51 that for many years the colonists had far other cares, and many other uses for their little savings, than to provide stones to mark their graves. These had to be imported from England at much cost, and consequently it was some years before any were able to afford the expense. The oldest stone is that to the memory of Edward Gray, 1681. Mr. Gray was a merchant, and one of the wealthiest men in the colony. Near the head of this path is a stone to William Crowe, 1683-84. Near by is one to Thomas Clark, 1697, erroneously reputed to have been the mate of the “Mayflower,” but who came in the “Ann,” in 1623. Clark’s Island received its name from John Clark, now known to have been the mate of the “Mayflower.” Beside the grave of Thomas Clark is that of his son, Nathaniel, who was one of the councillors of Sir Edward Andros, Governor of New England. Other old stones are those of Mrs. Hannah Clark, 1697; and John Cotton, 1699. These are all the original stones bearing dates in the seventeenth century. There are some with dates of that century which have been erected since, by descendants, including the monument to Governor Bradford, before alluded to: the fine granite shaft to Robert Cushman; and the stone over the remains of John Howland. The inscription on the latter stone reads as follows:—

Here ended the Pilgrimage of JOHN HOWLAND who died February 23, 167 2-3, aged above 80 years. He married Elizabeth daughter of JOHN TILLEY who came with him in the Mayflower Dec. 1620. From them are descended a numerous posterity.

“Hee was a godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ. Hee was one of the first comers into this land and was the last man that was left of those that came over in the Shipp called the Mayflower that lived in Plymouth.”—(Plymouth Records.)

Near the Bradford monument are the graves of his family. The face of the stone at the grave of his son, Major William Bradford, shelled off in 1876-77, but the inscription 52 has since been retraced. The cut following is reproduced from a view taken of the original, and is an exact facsimile

Here lyes ye body of ye honourable Major William Bradford, who expired Feb’ ye 20th, 1703-4, aged 79 years.

He lived long, but still was doing good,

And in his country’s service lost much blood,

And a life well spent, he’s now at rest,

His very name and memory is blest.


At the grave of another son the headstone reads as follows:

Here lyes interred ye body of Mr. Joseph Bradford, son of the late Honorable William Bradford, Esq., Governor of Plymouth, Colony, who departed this life July the 10th, 1715 in the eighty-fifth year of his age.


The following are some of the inscriptions of the older stones:

Here lyes ye body of Mrs. Hannah Sturtevant, aged about sixty-four years. Dec. in March, 1708-9.

Here lyes buried the body of Mr. Thomas Faunce, ruling elder of the First Church of Christ in Plymouth. Deceased Feb’y, 27, 1745, in the ninety-ninth year of his age.

The fathers—where are they?

Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.


(Elder Faunce was the last who held the office of ruling elder in the church. He was contemporary with many of the first comers, and from him comes much of the information we possess about the localities now venerated.)

The epitaphs in old graveyards possess much interest to the lovers of the quaint and curious, and this first cemetery 54 of New England is not without its attraction of that kind. The following are some of the most interesting:—

This stone is erected to the memory of that unbiased judge, faithful officer, sincere friend, and honest man, Col. Isaac Lothrop who resigned his life on the 26th day of April, 1750, in the forty-third year of his age.

Had Virtue’s charms the power to save

Its faithful votaries from the grave,

This stone had ne’er possessed the fame

Of being marked with Lothrop’s name.

A row of stones on the top of the hill, near the marble tablet marking the locality of the Watch Tower, is raised to the memory of the ministers of the First Parish. Back of these is the Judson lot, where the sculptor’s chisel has perpetuated the remembrance of Rev. Adoniram Judson, the celebrated missionary to Burmah, whose body was committed to the keeping of Old Ocean. On the westerly side of the hill is a monument erected by Stephen Gale of Portland, Me:—

To the memory of seventy-two seamen, who perished in Plymouth Harbor, on the 26th and 27th days of December, 1778, on board the private armed brig, General Arnold, of twenty guns, James Magee, of Boston, Commander; sixty of whom were buried in this spot.

About midway on the easterly slope a little to the north of the main path up the hill, on the stone to a child aged one month:—

He glanced into our world to see

A sample of our miserie.

On a stone a little farther north, to the memory of four children, aged respectively thirty-six, twenty-one, seventeen and two years:—

Stop traveller and shed a tear

Upon the fate of children dear.

On the path towards the schoolhouse on a stone to a woman with an infant child by her side:—


Come view the seen, ’twill fill you with surprise,

Behold the loveliest form in nature dies;

At noon she flourished, blooming, fair and gay;

At evening an extended corpse she lay.

Near the entrance to this path is the grave of a Revolutionary soldier, Capt. Jacob Taylor, died 1788:—

Through life he braved her foe, if great or small,

And marched out foremust at his country’s call.

On this path is the grave of Joseph Bartlett, who died in 1703:—

Thousands of years after blest Abel’s fall,

’Twas said of him, being dead he speaketh yet;

From silent grave methinks I hear a call:—

Pray, fellow mortals, don’t your death forget.

You that your eyes cast on this grave,

Know you a dying time must have.

Near the same place is a curious stone, to the memory of John Cotton:—

Here lyes interred three children, viz., three sons of Rev. Mr. John
Cotton, who died in the work of the gospel ministry at
Charlestown, South Carolina, Sept.
ye 18th, 1869, where he had great success, and seven sons of
Josiah Cotton, Esq., who died in their infancy.

On the southerly slope of the hill, near a pine grove, is a stone to a child:—

The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge.

On the stone to the memory of Thomas Jackson, died in 1794:—

The spider’s most attenuated thread

Is cord, is cable, to man’s tender tie.


Many years I lived

Many painful scenes I passed,

Till God at last

Called me home.


In a long lot enclosed with an iron fence:—

F. W. Jackson. obit M. C. H. 23, 1797, 1 yr. 7 dys,

Heav’n knows what man

He might have made. But we

He died a most rare boy.


As young as beautiful; and soft as young,

And gay as soft; and innocent as gay.


A little farther on in this path is the stone to Tabitha Plasket, 1807, the epitaphs, on which, written supposedly by herself, breaths such a spirit of defiance that it attracts much attention:—

Adieu, vain world, I’ve seen enough of thee;

And I am careless what thou say’st of me;

Thy smiles I wish not,

Nor thy frowns I fear,

I am now at rest, my head lies quiet here,

Mrs. Plasket, in her widowhood, taught a private school for small children, at the same time, as was the custom of her day, doing her spinning. Her mode of punishment was to pass skeins of yarn under the arms of the little culprits, and hang them upon pegs. A suspended row was a ludicrous sight.

Mr. Joseph Plasket (husband of Tabitha) died in 1794, at the age of forty-eight years. The widow wrote his epitaph as follows:—

All you that doth behold my stone,

Consider how soon I was gone.

Death does not always warning give,

Therefore be careful how you live.

Repent in time, no time delay,

I in my prime was called away.

Nearly opposite this is one on a very young child:—

The babe that’s caught from womb and breast,

Claim right to sing above the rest,

Because they found the happy shore

They never saw or sought below.

As this path comes out on the brow of the hill, near a white fence, is a stone to Elizabeth Savery, 1831:—

Remember me as you pass by,

As you are now, so once was I;

As I am now, so you will be,

Therefore prepare to follow me.


On the path by the fence in the rear of the hill:—

The father and the children dead,

We hope to Heaven their souls have fled.

The widow now alone is left,

Of all her family bereft.

May she now put her trust in God,

To heal the wound made by His rod.

On a stone raised to the memory of a child:—

He listened for a while to hear

Our mortal griefs; then turned his ear

To angel harps and songs, and cried

To join their notes celestial, sigh’d and died.



A little from the path up Burial Hill to the left, just below the tall Cushman monument, a marble tablet designates the spot where the fort of the little colony was situated, quite a portion of its outline still being distinct, particularly at the easterly corner. We can see at once with what sagacity the site was chosen, undoubtedly by Standish. It commanded Leyden Street, and the approaches from the brook over which the Indians came.


Standing here, we have a view of the southern part of the town. The blue heights of Manomet Hills shut in the horizon. Beyond them lies the little hamlet of South Plymouth, a rural village with summer hotels, the Ardmore Inn and Idlewild hotels of considerable celebrity, especially among sportsmen, to which the very spacious and beautiful Mayflower Inn has been added in 1917. On this side is the village of Chiltonville, with its churches and factories. Far down to the shore, near the head of the Beach, is the Hotel Pilgrim. Just south of the hotel are the beautiful level lawns and attractive cozy club-house of the Plymouth Country 60 Club, the golf links being situated on the opposite side of Warren avenue, running over high, clear, breezy fields and commanding a splendid view of ocean and of land. Near lies the southerly portion of the main part of the town, divided by the brook. Across the stream, or pond, just beyond Main Street extension with its bridge built in 1907-8, is the public common, laid out very early as a “Training Green,” the name it bears today. It is an attractive square surrounded with large elm trees, and in its centre stands the monument erected in 1869 to the memory of the Soldiers and Sailors of Plymouth, who gave their lives for the country in the Civil War. Before the Pilgrims came the Green was an Indian cornfield.



Watson’s Hill

Illustrated capital

Above the Green is Watson’s Hill, now covered with houses. This was the “Cantauganteest” of the Indians, one of their favorite resorts where they had their summer camps, and on the level below planted their corn. It is famous as the opening scene of the treaty with Massasoit, made April 1, 1621. Gov. Bradford had a tract of land assigned him here on which to raise corn, and to this day portions of the hill remain in the Bradford name and others of direct descent from him.


The Watch Tower

A little to the north of the site of the old fort another tablet marks the place of the brick watch tower erected in 1643. The locality of this tower is indicated by four stone posts set in the ground to mark its corners. The brick 62 foundations are still there, about a foot below the surface, and the old hearthstone on which the Pilgrims built their watch fires still lies where they placed it, on the southerly side of the enclosure. The location of the tower was discovered many years ago in digging a grave, when the sexton came upon the foundation. The town records of Sept. 23, 1643, have the following entry in regard to it: “It is agreed upon the whole that there shall be a watch house forthwith, built of brick, and that Mr. Grimes will sell us the brick at eleven shillings a thousand.”

Back of this is seen the lot of Rev. Adoniram Judson, the famous missionary to Burmah.

This is the first mention of brick in the records of the colony, and it is to be presumed that this marks about the time of the first brickyards. The cause of the tower being built was probably the threatenings of the Indians, which resulted in the Narragansett war.



Still later, in 1676, another fortification was erected on the hill, presumably covering the same area, enclosing a hundred feet square, “with palisadoes ten and one half feet high, and three pieces of ordnance planted on it.” The town agreed with Nathaniel Southworth to build a watch house, “which is to be sixteen feet in length, twelve feet in breadth, and eight feet stud, to be walled with boards, and to have two floors, the upper floor to be six feet above the tower, to batten the walls and make a small pair of stairs in it, the roof to be covered with shingles, and a chimney to be built in it. For the said work he is to have eight pounds, either in money or other pay equivalent.” This being only thirty-two years after the building of the brick tower, it would seem as if the latter could hardly have fallen or been taken down, and it is possible if not probable, that the wooden watch tower was built upon the old brick one; but of this we can only conjecture. This was in the period of King Philip’s war in 1675. From here might have been seen the blaze of the houses of Eel River (now Chiltonville), and the terrible warwhoop almost heard as the savages burst 64 upon the little hamlet near Bramhall’s corner on that peaceful Sabbath in March, 1676, when they left eleven dead bodies of women and children and smoking ruins to mark their savage onslaught.

The Harbor


Illustrated capital

We have, from the easterly brow of Burial Hill, a beautiful picture of the harbor and its surroundings. Below us the ground slopes to the water, cut into terrace below terrace, with the buildings upon them. At its foot are the wharves and harbor, and below it the Beach near which the “Mayflower” swung at her anchors. Manomet is the range of misty blue hills stretching into the bay on the right. Kingston and Duxbury, with Captain’s Hill are on the left, and far out Clark’s Island, Saquish, and the Gurnet, with the thin, sandy strip of beach joining the latter headlands. On the Gurnet is Fort Andrew, and at Saquish is Fort Standish, both earthworks, built by the Government during the Civil war of 1861-65, but now dismantled and 65 unused. These sites are the property of the United States. The Gurnet, it is said, takes its name from a somewhat similar promontory in the English channel, near Plymouth, England. On it are located a United States life-saving station, twin lighthouses and a Dabol trumpet fog signal. A whistling buoy at the entrance of the harbor, opposite the Gurnet, gives warning in thick weather, of the dangerous Brown’s Island shoal. Saquish is an Indian word signifying an abundance of clams. Clark’s Island was named from the mate of the “Mayflower,” who commanded the shallop on the expedition when the island was discovered.

The following statistics were furnished by Capt. A. M. Harrison from the United States Survey of 1853-57: From the shore end of Long Wharf, in a straight line, to Gurnet Light, the distance is four and seven-sixteenths statute miles, or, three and seven-eighths nautical miles. The length of Plymouth Beach, from the foot of Manomet Hills to the beacon on extreme point, is three and five-sixteenths statute miles, or two and seven-eights nautical miles. The length of the Beach from its junction with the mainland to the beacon, is two and five-eighths statute miles, or two and one-fourth nautical miles.

Voyage of the Mayflower Shallop

Illustrated capital

From Burial Hill we can overlook the whole course of that boat expedition which started on its voyage of discovery from the “Mayflower” in Provincetown Harbor, directly opposite us across the bay. Coasting along the inside of Cape Cod at the right, its sandy shore hidden by distance from our sight, some of the exploring party on foot, forcing their way through the tangled wilderness, sometimes wading 66 in half frozen water through the surf or across brooks, they slowly make their way. Constantly on the alert, and two or three times attacked and beating off their assailants, the shallop now with all the party aboard nears Manomet point. It begins to snow and rain and the wind to blow and the seas to rise. Now the hinge of the rudder breaks, and oars are got out to steer with. Master Coppin, the pilot, bids them to be of good cheer, for he sees the harbor which he had promised them.


Across the bay they drive, keeping on a press of sail to make the desired harbor before nightfall when crash goes the mast, broken into three pieces, and the shallop is near being wrecked. Now the flood-tide takes them and bears them in past the Gurnet nose, and Master Coppin, finding himself in a strange place that he had never seen before, throws up his hands and exclaims: “The Lord be merciful to us, I never saw this place before,” and in his terror would have run the boat on shore, “in a cove full of breakers,” between the Gurnet and Saquish; “but a lusty seaman which steered bade those that rowed, if they were men, about with her, or else they were all cast away.” The short twilight of the winter day had faded 67 into darkness, as the storm-tossed and dispirited company found themselves “under the lee of a small island.” There it is before us, the third highland to the left—the first being the Gurnet and the second Saquish. They landed, and kept their watch that night in a rain. Gov. Bradford, in his history, gives us a few more particulars: “In the morning they find the place to be a small island secure from Indians. And this being the last day of the week, they here dry their stuff, fix their pieces, rest themselves, return God thanks for their many deliverances and here the next day keep their Christian Sabbath.” Tradition says that from a large rock with a flat top that is there now, bearing the inscription, “On the Sabbath day we rested,” the first prayer ascended on this shore; and there, for the first time in New England, praise and thanks were given to that watchful Providence that had guided and guarded them. The next day, Monday, they sailed up to the shore below us, and, stepping on Plymouth Rock, made the exploration which ultimately determined them to fix upon this place for their plantation.

Morton Park

Illustrated capital

One of the most attractive spots in old Plymouth and one that the casual visitor does not always see, is Morton Park. Lying a little more than a mile from the town centre it makes a convenient pleasure-ground for Plymouth people, and the beauty of the place is such as to attract all lovers of woodland scenery. Nature has done her most to make the park charming, and man has very wisely made little attempt to improve it. Nearly 200 acres there are, consisting of deep woods and open country, hills and valleys, brooks and ponds.



The park nearly surrounds Little Pond, consisting of forty acres, and borders for a mile on the historic Billington Sea, which has 308 acres. Roads and paths have been laid out in romantic situations, and some trees planted, but otherwise the wild woodland cleared of underbrush remains in its natural state. In 1889 the land was given to the town by several public-spirited citizens, and the park was named for Nathaniel Morton, Esq., one of its principal donors, who during his life made it his special pride, and gave his money generously for its improvement.


Town Brook

“And there is a very sweet brooke runnes under the hillside, and many delicate springs of as good water as can be drunke.” GOV. BRADFORD.

Illustrated capital

At the foot of Burial Hill, on the south side, the Town Brook flows through the centre of the town, “vexed in all its seaward course by bridges, dams and mills.” Along the banks the Pilgrims erected their first dwelling-houses and brought water from “the very sweet brooke” below, into which the “many delicate springs” still continue to run.


It is a favorite resort for artists who delight in sketching the picturesque scenery and ancient architecture. One of these springs of deliciously clear cold water, is forced up from near the brook by electric power, and runs out in a fountain at the corner of Leyden and Main Streets, on land once owned by Elder Brewster as previously noted. 70 During the summer many thousands are here refreshed, and while citizens much enjoy the cooling draughts, visitors highly commend the public provision which enables them to partake of the waters of a spring, from which the Pilgrims themselves daily obtained their supply “of as good water as can be drunke.”

The stream proceeds from Billington Sea about two miles distant from the town. It furnishes a valuable water power at the present, and in the days of the Pilgrims, and for nearly two centuries after, it abounded with alewives almost at their doors, affording an important resource for the supply of their wants. The tide flowed for some distance up this stream and formed a convenient basin for the reception and safe shelter of the shallops and other vessels employed in their earlier enterprises of fishing and traffic. Under authority of a Legislative act the Town of Plymouth purchased this estuary in 1909 that the area and surrounding may be subject to public improvements. From Watson’s Hill, over this brook, where Market Street crosses it, came the great sachem Massasoit, with twenty of his braves, on a visit to the Pilgrims, when was concluded that treaty April 1, 1621, which during nearly fifty-five years conduced so effectually to the safety and permanence of the colony.

Old Houses

Illustrated capital

Plymouth contains many old buildings antedating the Revolution, but they have been repaired and modernized so that they do not have that appearance at present, and visitors are often disappointed in not finding the antique structures which they expected. Old people, now living, can remember when several of these buildings had “Dutch ovens” and chimneys built on the outside.


Old houses still remaining are the Kendall Holmes house on Winter street, built in 1666; the Leach house, on Summer Street, built in 1679; the Howland house, 1666; the Shurtleff house, 1698; the Crowe house, 1664; and the William Harlow house, built in 1677, partly of the material of the old fort on Burial Hill. The Howland descendants recently purchased the old homestead on Sandwich street, and in the spring of 1913, put it in complete repair, designing it as a place of annual meeting, and for public visitation in the summer season. The Cole blacksmith shop, 1684, which composed part of a building at the corner of Leyden and Main streets, and was regarded with much interest by visitors, was badly damaged by fire April 16, 1913, and has been replaced by a very handsome store building. It is a coincidence that this old smithy which the Pilgrims knew on the first Pilgrim street, should have burned on the anniversary of the day the “Mayflower” sailed on her return voyage, after passing the winter here in Plymouth harbor.


The Winslow house on North Street is a good example of 72 the colonial style of architecture. It was built about 1754 by Edward Winslow, who was a great-grandson of Gov. Winslow, of the colony. He purchased the land from Consider, a grandson of John Howland, who was one of the “Mayflower” passengers. Additions have recently been made to the house which is now owned and occupied by Mrs. C. L. Willoughby. In this house then owned by her father, Charles Jackson, Miss Lydia Jackson was married to the famed scholar and philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson.


The Sergeant William Harlow House was built in 1677 of timbers from the fort on Burial Hill, which was taken down at the close of the King Phillip War. It has recently been purchased by the Plymouth Antiquarian Society and is now open to the public.

On the corner of Main and North Streets, built in 1730, still stands the house of General John Winslow, who removed the Acadians from Nova Scotia. This was also the home of James Warren, President of the Provincial Congress.


The Town

Illustrated capital

By the State census of 1920 the population of Plymouth was 13,032. The total valuation in 1920 was $20,854,025, of which $15,573,175 was real estate, and $5,280,850 personal. The number of polls assessed was 3,523 and the acres of land assessed 50,269. Tax rate, $22.80 on $1,000. The funded debt January 1, 1920, was $188,533 of which amount $42,933 was water debt, leaving but $145,600 funded for other purposes. This is extremely moderate in comparison with the value of the town’s municipal property and assets, which are net aggregated.


Few towns are better provided with city conveniences. A system of public works, introduced in 1855, supplies the inhabitants with pure water from the great ponds that lie in the woods a few miles south of the town. Excellent drainage 74 is secured by an extensive system of sewers, the main outlets discharging in deep water of the harbor 1500 feet from the shore. The main thoroughfares are lighted by electricity, and both electricity and gas are in use for illuminants in public buildings, stores, factories and dwellings. Court Street and Main Street, from the N. Y., N. H. & H. railroad station to the head of Water Street, comprise the “Great Whiteway” system of arc lighting from underground wires, with very satisfactory results. These lights were turned on in the evening of March 1st, 1916, the occasion having been made an impromptu celebration, in which several thousands of citizens of Plymouth and neighboring towns took part. Electric street railways furnish connection with the adjacent towns, and are a source of much pleasure in summer for trolley trips to the beaches, hotels, and suburbs.


The town has a public library incorporated in 1880, containing 75 nearly 16,000 volumes and a valuable collection of 4,000 large photographs from the finest art subjects in European galleries. Its schools rank among the best in the State, and its high-school building, erected in 1891 at a cost of forty thousand dollars, and enlarged in 1914 at a cost of more than thirty thousand dollars, has accommodation for over three hundred pupils. In its religious denominations holding regular services are represented the Unitarian, Congregational, Baptist, Universalist, Methodist, Catholic, Episcopal, Advent, German Lutheran, Christian Scientist, Spiritualist, Latter Day Saints and Jewish faiths.

Plymouth has good streets, her principal thoroughfares being macadamized. The sidewalks throughout the centre of the town are concreted. Her stores are kept abreast of the times, and a weekly newspaper, the Old Colony Memorial established May, 1822, chronicles the happenings of local and neighborhood interest.

The town contains five banking institutions,—Old Colony and the Plymouth National banks; the Plymouth, the Plymouth Five Cents and the Plymouth Co-operative savings banks, occupying two fine brick buildings on Main Street. There are six excellent hotels within the town limits, four of them well known as summer resorts. To the credit of the town be it said, that its citizens are so law abiding that only a small but very effective uniformed police force is required, and there is seldom occasion of arrest for any serious offense.

The fire department has a first-class alarm and motor system, and is run in regular city style. The town voted in March, 1916, to reorganize the department under a single Commissioner, and appropriated about $17,000 for new motor apparatus. Of the four “auto” pieces, going into commission in 1917, two are combined chemical and hose; one a powerful three stream pump, hose and ladder combination; 76 and one a first-class ladder truck. This modern outfit, in charge of a chief and permanent force at the Central station, is so quickly effective as to meet emergencies; but two steamers, one ladder truck and a hose wagon of the old department, are kept available in case of need.


The military establishment consists of a fine State armory which cost $30,000 in which the “Standish Guards,” chartered in 1818, have their quarters. The “Guards” were one of the best companies in the dandy Fifth Regiment, and their past history in the Civil and Spanish wars is highly creditable. They were “Minute Men of 1861,” responding under Capt. Charles C. Doten on the first call for troops the morning of April 16, 1861, and with their regiment, then the Third Massachusetts, were the very first of any troops of the war, either National or Volunteer, to go within the rebel lines as they did when on the gunboat “Pawnee” they ran the rebel batteries and destroyed the Norfolk navy yard, and rescued the frigate “Cumberland” on the night of April 77 20, 1861. In the Spanish war, commanded by Capt. W. C. Butler, they were in camp in the South, but the regiment, the Fifth, was not sent to Cuba, while all the while in instant readiness for active service. Again, June 21, 1916, as company D of the Fifth, they at once responded to the call for state troops to defend the Mexican border, and splendidly maintained their patriotic record, under the command of Capt. Charles H. Robbins,—the Lieut. Col. of the regiment being their former commander, Capt. W. C. Butler. The company returned Oct. 21, 1916 and received a hearty welcome from the townspeople. As part of the National Guard, the company was mustered into the United States service for the European war, Aug. 8, 1917, under command of Capt. A. J. Carr, and with 141 men went into camp at Framingham, Aug. 17, where the 5th and 9th regiments were consolidated and became the 101st U. S. N. G. Infantry, in the 26th Division, embarking for service in Europe, Sept. 7, 1917.

Its Industries

Illustrated capital

The character of Plymouth’s industrial life has entirely changed within a half century. Within the memory of men now living, the time was when the town boasted a fleet of seventy-five fishermen, and enjoyed prestige as a fishing port. In common with other seaport towns of New England, this industry has departed, but thriving manufactories have risen in its place and coal barges and steamships are doing business at the port, superseding the old fishing schooners which once crowded the wharves or whitened the harbor with their sails.

Plymouth’s manufacturing industries show great diversity of character, and are exceedingly prosperous. The yearly 78 value of their total product is not far from fifteen million dollars. The great cordage works at North Plymouth are the very largest concern of the kind in the world, employing above 2,000 hands, and have built up a flourishing corporation hamlet in that quarter of the town. Their manufacturing product is over $10,000,000 a year, and their big steamships bringing from Yucatan directly to Plymouth great cargoes of fibre as raw material, give the port, as one of foreign import, rank in Massachusetts over all other ports of the state directly next to Boston. There are three large mills engaged in the production of woolen and worsted cloths, one busy concern making rugs and mats, while three extensive factories keep many of Plymouth’s inhabitants employed in the manufacture of tacks, nails, and rivets. An iron foundry does a large business in stovemaking, and at Chiltonville there is a big branch plant of the Boston Woven Hose and Rubber Company, under Plymouth management which supports quite a village of its own. Besides these are the manufactories of insulated wire for electrical purposes, zinc and copper, saw gummers and swages, barrels, boxes, kegs and kits, and numerous smaller enterprises. The Plymouth Electric Light and Power Company furnishes current to several of these establishments, besides sending current to Kingston, Duxbury and Marshfield, Middleboro and Carver for domestic and street lighting. It also lights Plymouth, having in its circuits of the several towns, nearly 40 miles of wire. The Cape Cod Canal, on both sides for its entire length, is illuminated by the P. E. L. Co., through a special system of heavy aerial conductors comprising a circuit of about 30 miles.

Plymouth’s manufactured products bear an excellent name in the markets of the world, her cordage and woolen goods being particularly well known as of the very best character.

In 1912 the town granted to Andrew Kerr a large area of 79 the sand flats in the harbor for propagation of clams, proving a good enterprise for the town. The herring fishery, employing many small boats each autumn at the mouth of the harbor, is also a productive industry of many thousands of dollars a season.

Of late years many Plymouth residents have engaged in cranberry culture on an extensive scale, and their ventures have been exceedingly profitable, amounting to about $400,000 yearly. Together with the adjoining town of Carver, which is still more extensively engaged in cranberry raising, the two towns produce more than one-fourth of the cranberries grown in the entire United States. An industry, which is of large proportions, is the raising of brook trout and spawn for the markets.

The recent harbor improvements, and the railroad facilities which will necessarily be increased in 1920, together with the attention being centered on Plymouth in its connection with the approaching Tercentenary Celebration will be likely to attract other manufacturing and business interests to the town, while its residential advantages are so apparent, that its eligible locations are now rapidly being appropriated.

As a Summer Resort

Viewed simply as the landing-place of the Pilgrims, Plymouth has an interest which attaches to no other spot in America. The number of visitors from all parts of the country increases with each year, as historic sentiment becomes more widespread and facilities for travel are multiplied. It is estimated that over 125,000 strangers visit the town in a year. It is not alone on account of its history that Plymouth is attractive to the visitor. The beauty of its scenery, the unusual healthfulness of its air, the purity of its water, 80 the variety of its drives, the number of ponds within its limits, and its unbounded resources for the sportsman and pleasure-seeker, have been more widely recognized with each recurring season. It combines the most interesting features of town and country, and has direct connection with Boston by the Old Colony Railroad built in 1845, and now leased by the New York, New Haven and Hartford R. R. Co., also directly with Providence and New York, by the Fall River Line, and the Plymouth & Middleboro Railroad, built by the towns in 1892 and sold to the N. Y., N. H. & H. corporation in 1911. The distance from Boston is thirty-seven miles by rail, with frequent trains; and during the summer months a daily steamer capable of carrying 2,000 passengers is on the route between the two places, the sail being a delightful one.


As a summer resort for health and pleasure, Plymouth has great attractions. Plymouth and the adjoining towns of Kingston and Duxbury nearly encircle a harbor of almost unrivalled beauty, a source of endless pleasure to the summer 81 visitor. There are good sand beaches for surf and smooth-water sea bathing, bath houses being provided by the town. In the bay are opportunities for fine sport in the mackerel season, and a haul of sea-perch, tautog, cod or haddock is always to be had. Plymouth extends over a territory about eighteen miles long, and from five to nine miles wide, and beyond the settled parts of the town is a succession of wooded hills. This large tract is interspersed with hundreds of large and small ponds (or lakes) stocked with fish, furnishing limitless fields for the lover of nature or seeker of pleasure, in walking, riding, fishing, or hunting. Wealthy residents of other places have fine summer seats at the town overlooking the harbor and bay.



The Compact

Signed in the Cabin of the “Mayflower,” Nov. 11th, Old Style, Nov. 21st, New Style, 1620.

“In the name of God, amen, we whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread soveraigne Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, Franc and Ireland king, defender of the faith, etc., having undertaken, for the glorie of God, and advancemente of the Christian faith, and honor of our king and countrie, a voyage to plant the first colonie in the Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God, and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civill body politick, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherence of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enacte, constitute and frame such just and equall laws, ordenances, acts, constitutions and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete and convenient for the general good of the colonie, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cap-Codd the 11 of November, in the year of the raigne of our soveraigne lord, King James of England, Franc and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, ANO DOM 1620.”

Members of the Mayflower Company
8 John Carver.
Katherine Carver, his wife.
Desire Minter.
John Howland.
Roger Wilder.
William Latham.
Maid Servant.
Jasper More.
6 William Brewster.
Mary Brewster, his wife.
Love Brewster.
Wrestling Brewster.
Richard More.
His Brother.
5 Edward Winslow.
Elizabeth Winslow, his wife.
George Soule.
Elias Story.
Ellen More.
2 William Bradford.
Dorothy Bradford, his wife.
6 Isaac Allerton.
Mary Allerton, his wife.
Bartholomew Allerton.
Remember Allerton.
Mary Allerton.
John Hooke.
1 Richard Warren.
4 John Billington.
Eleanor Billington, his wife.
John Billington.
Francis Billington.
4 Edward Tilley.
Ann Tilley, his wife.
Henry Sampson.
Humility Cooper.
3 John Tilley.
His wife.
Elizabeth Tilley.
2 Francis Cooke.
John Cooke.
2 Thomas Rogers.
Joseph Rogers.
3 Thomas Tinker.
His wife.
His son.
2 John Rigdale.
Alice Rigdale, his wife.
3 James Chilton.
His wife.
Mary Chilton.
1 Samuel Fuller.
2 John Crackston.
John Crackston, Jr.
2 Miles Standish.
Rose Standish, his Wife.
4 Christopher Martin.
His wife.
Solomon Power.
John Langemore.
5 William Mullins.
Alice Mullins, his wife.
Joseph Mullins.
Robert Carter.
Priscilla Mullins.
6 William White.
Susanna White, his wife.
Resolved White.
Peregrine White.
William Holbeck.
Edward Thompson.
8 Stephen Hopkins.
Elizabeth Hopkins, his wife.
Giles Hopkins.
Constance Hopkins.
Damarius Hopkins.
Oceanus Hopkins.
Edward Doty.
Edward Leister.
3 Edward Fuller.
His wife.
Samuel Fuller.
3 John Turner
His son.
Another son.
3 Francis Eaton.
Sarah Eaton, his wife.
Samuel Eaton.
1 Moses Fletcher.
1 Thomas Williams.
1 Digory Priest.
1 John Goodman.
1 Edmund Margeson.
1 Richard Britteridge.
1 Richard Clarke.
1 Richard Gardner.
1 Gilbert Winslow.
1 Peter Browne.
1 John Alden.
1 Thomas English.
1 John Allerton.
1 William Trevore.
1 —— Ely.
1 William Butten, who died at sea.

A. S. Burbank Pilgrim Book and Art Shop Plymouth

Photographs, 6×8, 35c each, $3.50 dozen.

Post Cards, 2 for 5c, 30c dozen.

Lantern Slides, 50c, $6.00 dozen.

Plymouth Rock.
The Canopy over the Rock.
The Canopy and Harbor from Cole’s Hill.
The Canopy and Cole’s Hill, first burial-place of the Pilgrims.
Plymouth Harbor as seen from Cole’s Hill.
Leyden Street, first street in New England.
Site of the Common House, Leyden Street, first house erected by the Pilgrims.
Leyden Street in 1622, showing first or Common House, Gov. Bradford’s House, and the buildings assigned to Brown, Goodman, Brewster, Billington, Allerton, Cooke, and Winslow.
Town Square, showing Church of the First Parish; Town House, formerly the Old Colonial Court House, built in 1749; site of Gov. Bradford’s House.
Old Burial Hill, Entrance.
Site of the Watch Tower, Burial Hill, erected in 1643. View also shows the lot of Rev. Adoniram Judson the celebrated missionary to Burmah.
Site of the Old Fort, Burial Hill, built in 1621 as a defense against the Indians, and also used as a place of worship.
The Old Fort and First Meeting-house, 1621.
Gov. Bradford’s Monument, Burial Hill, showing also the graves of his family.
Grave of Edward Gray, 1681.
Grave of John Howland, 1672.
Grave of Thomas Clarke. 1697.
Cushman Monument.
Grave of Elder Thomas Cushman.
Grave of Dr. Francis LeBaron, “The Nameless Nobleman.”
Pilgrim Hall.
Interior of Pilgrim Hall, showing Charles Lucy’s famous painting of the Departure from Delft Haven, also smaller pictures and relics.
Chair and spinning wheel
Gov. Carver’s chair; Ancient Spinning Wheel.
Interior of Pilgrim Hall, showing Sargent’s painting of the Landing, and Weir’s Embarkation, and relics and portraits.
Landing of the Pilgrims, painting by Sargent.
The Departure from Delft Haven, painting by Charles Lucy.
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, painting by Weir.
Landing of the Pilgrims, painting by Charles Lucy.
Landing of the Pilgrims, painting by Gisbert.
Elder Brewster’s Chair; Cradle of Peregrine White, the first Pilgrim baby.
Sword of Myles Standish; Iron Pot and Pewter Platter, brought by Standish in the “Mayflower.”
The “Mayflower” in Plymouth Harbor, from painting by W. F. Hallsall, Pilgrim Hall.
Group of Winslow Relics, Pilgrim Hall.
Group of White Relics, Pilgrim Hall.
National Monument to the Forefathers.
Statue of Freedom, National Monument.
Statue of Law, National Monument.
Statue of Education, National Monument.
Statue of Morality, National Monument.
Treaty with Massasoit, alto-relief on National Monument.
Landing of the Pilgrims, alto-relief on National Monument.
Clark’s Island, where the Pilgrims spent their first Sabbath in Plymouth.
Pulpit Rock, Clark’s Island, from which the first sermon was preached.
The Gurnet, headland at entrance of harbor.
Along Shore from Atwood’s Wharf.
Duxbury Pier Light.
Gurnet Lights and Keeper’s residence.
Diagram of streets and Historic Points.
North Street.
County Court House and Registry Building.
New County Prison.
Town Brook.
Pilgrim Meersteads along Town Brook.
A Bit of the Upper Town Brook.
View along the Wharves from Stephen’s Point.
Outlet, Billington Sea.
Pilgrim Wharf and Along Shore.
Boot Pond.
Morton Park, Entrance.
Manomet Bluffs.
Rocky Shore, Manomet.
Bathing Beach, Manomet.
Mayflower Inn.
Hotel Pilgrim.
Samoset House.
Plymouth Rock House.
Main Street.
Plymouth Country Club.
Main Street Bridge over Town Brook.
Daniel Webster House, Marshfield.
Plymouth in 1622,—a combination picture, showing Leyden Street, the Old Fort, Landing from the Shallop, Plymouth Rock and the ship “Mayflower.”
Gov. Bradford’s House, Plymouth.
Font in Austerfield Church where Gov. Wm. Bradford was baptized.
Austerfield Church.
Birthplace of Gov. William Bradford, Austerfield.
Page of the Register, Austerfield Church, showing record of the baptism of Gov. William Bradford.
Scrooby Church.
Interior of Scrooby Church.
Scrooby Manor House. Elder William Brewster’s Residence.
Bawtry Church.
High Street, Bawtry.
Site of John Robinson’s House at Leyden.
Church at Leyden where John Robinson was buried.
Memorial Tablet to John Robinson on Church at Leyden.
Old Church at Delft Haven, where the Pilgrims held their last service before the embarkation.
The Pilgrim Fathers holding their first meeting for public worship in North America.
“The March of Myles Standish.”
Cannon barrels
Grave of Myles Standish, Duxbury.
Peregrine White House, Marshfield.
Old Oaken Bucket House, Scituate.
Crow House, built by William Crow, 1664.
Howland House, built by Jacob Mitchell, 1666.
William Harlow House, built of timber from the Old Burial Hill Fort, by William Harlow, 1677.
Homestead of Gen. John Winslow, 1726.
The Town House, formerly the Old Colonial Court House, built in 1749.
The Winslow House, built in 1754, by Edward Winslow. Colonial architecture.
Cole’s Blacksmith Shop, 1684.
Statue of Myles Standish.
Myles Standish Monument.
Standish House, Duxbury, built by son of Myles Standish, 1666.
Captain’s Hill, Duxbury, the Home of Myles Standish, showing Standish House and Monument.
Winslow House, Marshfield, built about 1700.
John Alden House, Duxbury, 1653.
Bradford House, Kingston, 1675.
John Hancock Sofa, Pilgrim Hall.
Memorial Tablet, Gov. William Bradford Estate, Kingston.
Departure from Delft Haven.
Priscilla and John Alden. From painting by George H. Boughton.
“Why don’t you Speak for Yourself, John?”
The Courtship. John Alden and Priscilla. From painting by George H. Boughton.
Departure of the “Mayflower,” from painting by A. W. Bayes.
Priscilla, from painting by G. H. Boughton.
Pilgrim Exiles, from painting by Boughton.
Pilgrims going to Church, from painting by Boughton.
Two Farewells, from painting by Boughton.
Return of the “Mayflower,” painting by Boughton.
Portrait of Edward Winslow, Governor of Plymouth Colony, one of the “Mayflower” company. The only authentic portrait of a “Mayflower” Pilgrim.



By John A. Goodwin. This is a new edition of a book first published in 1888 and long recognized as the standard history of the Pilgrims. By mail, $7.65.


By Roland G. Usher, Ph. D. The three hundred ten pages of this book contain all of the really pertinent information about the Pilgrims and their history. Illustrated, by mail, $2.65.


England, Holland and America, by W. E. Griffis, illustrated. By mail, $1.85.


Containing reprints of Morton’s New England Memorial, Cushman’s Discourse, Winslow’s Relation, and other contemporary narrations, 364 pages, flexible leather, postpaid, $2.60; cloth, $1.10.


By Mary C. Crawford. The Story of the Plymouth Colony—its settlement and early days, its events and personalities. By mail, $3.15.


And their comrades who came later in The Ann and The Fortune, by Annie Russell Marble. By mail, $1.60.


By Albert H. Plumb. A romance of Plymouth’s first years. By mail, $2.15.


A brief history from 1606 to 1901, by John Cuckson, Minister. By mail, $1.60.


By Basil Mathews. The Pilgrim Story, told in a dramatic way that holds the interest alike for young people and their elders. Illustrated in colors. By mail, $1.60.


By Tudor Jenks. By mail, $1.90.


By E. J. Carpenter. By mail, $2.15.


By Agnes Edwards, profusely illustrated by Ruyl. Written with genuine appreciation of the charm of “Old Cape Cod.” By mail, $3.15.


From Boston to Plymouth. By Agnes Edwards. Illustrated by Ruyl. One of the most historic roads in the country, passing many quaint old houses and places connected with New England history. By mail, $3.15.


By Henry D. Thoreau. 16 full page illustrations. Traveling on foot through the Cape, Thoreau missed nothing that was entertaining or characteristic. By mail, $1.85.



By Dennis and Marion Chatham. Illustrated. A pleasurable bit of summer life on Cape Cod outside the usual routine. By mail, $1.45.


By Joseph C. Lincoln. By mail, $2.15.


By Albert Perry Brigham with 35 full page illustrations from photographs and maps. By mail, $3.65.


By Winthrop Packard. 24 full page illustrations. Entertainingly written by a true lover of nature. By mail, $3.15.


By Jane G. Austin. New uniform edition in five volumes, $2.00 each. The set, boxed, $10.00. Add 10c each for mailing.

These novels, dealing with the early settlers of Plymouth, have taken their place among the American classics, and their combination of romantic interest, real literary quality, and historical accuracy has won for them wide popularity. The titles alone bring before the mind a vision of the most famous colonists: “Betty Alden,” “A Nameless Nobleman,” “Standish of Standish,” “Dr. LeBaron and his Daughters,” “David Alden’s Daughter and Other Stories.” This attractive new edition will open the doors of the Pilgrim homes to many new readers and will be welcomed in its uniform dress by old acquaintances.


A dramatized version by Annie Russell Marble of Mrs. Austin’s famous portrayal of life in the earliest days of the Plymouth Colony. By mail, $1.35.


By Samuel Adams Drake. Illustrated, cloth, 173 pages, postpaid, $1.00.


Descriptive of the historic points and localities famous in the story of the Pilgrims. Profusely illustrated, 96 pages, postpaid, 25 cents.


Compiled from the writings of Governor Bradford and Governor Winslow, and largely in their own words. Alphabetical list of passengers on the Mayflower with valuable notations in regard to each person. 57 pages, paper covers. By mail, 28c.


The pictures are full page, with brief descriptive lines, and consists of reproductions from paintings of scenes in Pilgrim life, and photographs of historic points in old Plymouth. Size of book, 8×10. Price, 60 cents postpaid.


By Gershom Bradford. By mail, 90 cents.

VALUABLE OUT OF PRINT BOOKS (A few copies for sale)

Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth and Genealogical Register, by Wm. T. Davis. Postpaid, $8.00.

History of Plymouth, by Wm. T. Davis. Postpaid, $4.00.

Epitaphs Old Burial Hill, complete, by Kingman. Postpaid, $3.25.




By Roland G. Usher—a dramatic, accurate and patriotic story which should leave in the child’s mind correct impressions about the fundamental factors in Pilgrim history. Illustrated, by mail, $1.35.


A Tale of the Children of the Pilgrim Republic. By Hezekiah Butterworth. Illustrated by H. Winthrop Peirce and others. 12mo, cloth. By mail, $2.15.


Retold for Young Folks by H. B. Tunnicliff. Illustrated. By mail, $1.35.


By William Elliot Griffis. Illustrated. A complete story of the Pilgrims in which prominence is given to the things that must have keenly interested the Pilgrim boys and girls. By mail, $3.15.


By Eva March Tappan. These letters give an idea of life in Plymouth and other representative colonies seen through a child’s eyes, presenting a vivid and historically accurate picture of the times. By mail, $2.65.


For Children, illustrated, postpaid, $1.00.


By Mara L. Pratt. 223 pages, illustrated. Postpaid, $1.00.


Built by Major John Bradford in 1674. Partially burned in King Phillip’s War two years later. It was for a quarter of a century the resting place of the famous Manuscript History of Plymouth Plantation.



of artistic excellence prized for historic and sentimental value.


Your selection from seven artistic designs—the ship Mayflower—Priscilla—Myles Standish—Pilgrim Monument—Plymouth Rock—Landing of the Pilgrims—Standish Monument. Tea size $4.50, coffee size $2.25, postpaid, tax included.


Hand made models of Gov. Carver’s chair, brought in the Mayflower and now in Pilgrim Hall. Height 7 inches. By mail, $2.00 each.


Bradford, Howland, Standish, Alden, Brewster, Fuller, Winslow, Warren, Cooke and White. Hand colored, $1.50 each, plain 25 cents, postpaid.


A perfect copy, in sterling silver, of the bodkin once owned by Penelope Winslow, and now in Pilgrim Hall. Price, by mail, $1.00.


In white, pink, blue, lavender and yellow. Very desirable for use at fairs, pageants, Thanksgiving or New England dinners. Price, by mail, $1.00.


A neat and artistic brooch, carrying a portrait of Priscilla Alden. Attractively colored, with the appearance of being hand-painted. Price, by mail, 30 cents.


Sterling silver finger rings—Plymouth Rock 1620 design—by mail, $1.35—state size in ordering.


Suitable for decorating a den or student’s room. In attractive colors. Price of various sizes: 25c, 50c, 75c, $1.00.


With leather guards and metal pendants bearing designs in relief—“Plymouth Rock”—“Pilgrim Monument.” By mail, 50 cents each.


For protecting the pencil point. A pleasing novelty, hand painted, in representation of Priscilla and of John Alden. By mail, 70c the pair, or 35c single.


Paper napkins bearing a design of “The Mayflower” in Plymouth Harbor, 1620. Dainty for use in giving a Pilgrim lunch or tea. The price, 30c for 50 napkins by mail.


Wall decorations of historic value. In plaster, not colored. Desirable for studio or den. Securely packed, by mail—7 inch plaques: Priscilla, John Alden, Squanto, 90c each; 4½×8 inch panel, Priscilla and John Alden, 90c; 4½×8 inch panel, Landing of The Pilgrims, $2.00.



12 Designs in a package—artistic and pleasing—50c the package.


Moulded in the shape of Plymouth Rock, with date 1620. A useful memento of historic value. Genuine bronze, $2.00. Solid glass 35c—add 10c each for mailing.


A beautifully executed souvenir in genuine bronze, 2¾ inches in diameter, bearing on one side a model of the ship Mayflower and on the reverse a relief of The Landing of the Pilgrims, Dec. 21, 1620. By mail, $4.00 each.


Everybody loves a log fire and here is a way to start the blaze quickly without the use of kindling. Made of brass $4.50, or with tray $5.75. Add 15c for mailing.


A miniature model of Plymouth Rock moulded in genuine bayberry wax with the date 1620. A real novelty for milady’s work bag. Each one in a box, 30c.

Model of Plymouth Rock


Genuine hand dipped, 10c, 15c, 25c, 50c each. On less than six candles add 10c for postage.


A pincushion made from Plymouth clam shells, 25c postpaid.


Dressed in ye costume of 1620—a delightful gift for the little ones. Price, $3.75 postpaid.


Packet by mail, 15c.


20 Pictures in colors, by mail, 12c.


By mail, 17c.



“Spake, in the pride of his heart, Myles Standish, the Captain of Plymouth,—

‘This is the sword of Damascus I fought with in Flanders.’”


Replica of Sword

The famous Damascus blade of the redoubtable Pilgrim Captain is one of the most valuable relics to be seen in Pilgrim Hall. It was handed down to Myles Standish from the Crusaders, and possessed an interesting history even in his day. Our swords are perfectly copied from the original, even in the engraving of the curious Arabic inscription on the blade. Prices by mail, tax included.

Paper Cutter, sterling silver, $3.25


An exact copy of a brass candlestick brought over in the Mayflower by William White, father of Peregrine White. The original candlestick is now in Pilgrim Hall, price $3.75 each. If by mail add 15 cents postage.


Signed in the cabin of the Mayflower, November 21, 1620, with the names of the signers.

Printed in old style type on a parchment paper made by hand in 1856, and mounted on rollers in form of a scroll. Price, securely packed, by mail, 40 cents.


Correct representation of Plymouth Rock and of the ship Mayflower in the shape of stick pins and brooches. Price of any one design, postpaid, 80 cents, tax included.


A miniature reproduction of a Colonial design. The clock is 17 inches high, beautifully finished with brass trimmings, and is a good timekeeper. Will make a distinctive and useful gift. Priced at $12.25; by mail, 35 cents extra. Without brass trimmings and center panel, $11.25; by mail, 35 cents extra.


Old Blue Pilgrim Plates
10 INCH.

This set of plates, as illustrated, was made to our order in Staffordshire, England.

The border design and old blue coloring is an exact reproduction of the old Staffordshire plates made in the eighteenth century.

The central pictures are from objects and paintings of interest in Pilgrim history. The reverse side bears the title and a quotation encircled by a wreath of Mayflowers.

The decoration, in a deep old blue, is under the glaze and therefore indelible.

There are eight subjects: The Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor; The Landing of the Pilgrims; Priscilla and John Alden; Pilgrim Monument; Myles Standish House, 1666; John Alden House; Pilgrim Hall; “Why don’t you speak for yourself, John?”

The price is twelve dollars per dozen, or $1.00 each, packed for expressing. Price by mail, in a safety mailing box, $1.25 each.

Old Blue Platter.

17 inch to match plates, $3.50 each.

CUPS AND SAUCERS to match, $10.00 per dozen.

Cole’s Hill

Plymouth Rock House


Summer Board at Reasonable Prices


Electric Lights Steam Heat

CLARK & SAMPSON, Proprietors

Long Distance Telephone Connection



Samoset House

First-class in every respect. Large parlors and piazzas, electric light, steam heat. Open fireplaces and private baths. Convenient to all points of historical interest. Quiet and comfortable.



High-resolution Map

A. S. Burbank, Publisher
Pilgrim Book and Art Shop
Plymouth, Mass.

1. Pilgrim Monument.
2. Samoset House.
3. N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R.
4. Pilgrim Hall.
5. Court House.
6. Cole’s Hill.
7. Plymouth Rock.
8. Site of first house.
9. Burial Hill.
10. Pilgrim Spring.
11. Training Green.
12. Watson’s Hill.
13. Pilgrim Wharf.
14. Town Brook.
15. Site of Gov. Bradford House.
16. Pilgrim Bookstore.

Transcriber’s Notes