Dogs as home companions : A book for all dog lovers



Title page.

Home Companions




“Dogcraft,” “The Pointer and the Setter in America,”
“The Modern Pointer,” “The Modern Setter,” “The
Working Dog and His Education,” “Practical
Dog Keeping for the Amateur,” “The Airedale
for Work and Show,” “Arrows of
Ambition,” etc.

Sportsman’s Digest
Cincinnati, Ohio

Copyright, 1922
Sportsman’s Digest
All Rights Reserved


To all the many men, women and children
scattered about over all the world,
who love dogs and keep one or more as
their home companions.

And in that town a dog was found,
As many dogs there be,
Both mongrel, puppy, whelp and hound
And curs of low degree.”—Goldsmith.


Chapter I.
Suitable Breeds. Group One—Toys1
Chapter II.
Suitable Breeds. Group Two—Terriers16
Chapter III.
Suitable Breeds. Group Three—Medium-Sized Dogs45
Chapter IV.
Housing Problems67
Chapter V.
Becoming Acquainted—Early Lessons76
Chapter VI.
The Food Question—When to Feed—Frequency of Feeding—Water87
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII.
If Sickness Comes105

Dogs as Home Companions

By A. F. Hochwalt.


Most people are interested in dumb animals, but every normal person loves a dog; it is the heritage of the ages. The man or the woman who hates a good dog is abnormal. There is something fundamentally wrong in their psychical makeup. How often we hear of people of this class who say they can see nothing friendly or desirable in any dog; that they are all alike; vicious and treacherous. The story of the man who writes articles in newspapers and pamphlets advocating the destruction of all dogs because they are a menace to mankind is a common one in every part of the world. A story is told of one of this class—a New England money lender—who took great pains to besmirch the character of the dog in public and private. His contention was that any dog would bite, and as proof, circulated a story that a little nondescript dog actually followed him aboard a street car and bit a piece out of his leg! Perhaps this is the truth and on the other hand, it may be manufactured out of the whole cloth, but it is to be hoped that it is so, for it only proves what keen perceptions dogs have. Every dog recognizes his friends among humankind with one glance at a person’s face. The dog is a better student of human nature than any other animal—biped or otherwise—and the dog that shuns one person and loves another knows from instinct and perception how to distribute his likes and dislikes. Therefore, those who see nothing but viciousness in the canine race have no one but themselves to blame; the dog knows his enemies at sight. To that class who are dog haters, this book is not addressed and they are advised to lay it aside before going farther.

There are many, however, who love dogs, who understand them and appreciate their many good qualities, for Dogs as Home Companions, have been cherished since time immemorial. A dog is like one of the family in many a household, for those who really understand him are aware that mentally he is not far removed from the human race, and emotionally is practically the latter’s equal.

Perhaps some may smile at this assertion, but nevertheless it is a fact.

This book is for the dog lover; not he who raises dogs for show purposes or as a commercial pursuit, though that is a most laudable enterprise, but he who loves the companionship of an intelligent dog and appreciates him for his real qualities as a home companion. As guardian of the house, a faithful ally to share in the joys and the sorrows of the household; or as a boon companion of the children. In short, a dog which is, to all intents and purposes, “one of us.”

There are many people in the world, of this class, and as many more who would have a dog, if they knew how to keep one, for deep down in their subconsciousness the love of the dog is there. To those, this book may be of help; it may prove that a dog in the home is like a regenerating influence; and many a family needs regeneration.

There are still many more who feel that they would like a dog for home and children if one could be kept in the city in a satisfactory manner. It is true that the dweller in flats could not have a St. Bernard or a Great Dane tagging about with him, but in many a flat small dogs are harbored and live their lives in the companionship of their human friends as happily, if not more so, than those dogs which live in kennels.

I have no brief for the hot-house dog, however, or those that are not living at least part of the time in the open, if it is necessary to give him the entire run of the house, the best chairs to lounge upon day and night, or perchance, the center of a nice, clean counterpane in the best bedroom. That is not my idea of keeping a dog, but nevertheless there is no reason why any person should live a dogless life simply because his home is in the city.

The dog lover, intending to become the owner of the dog, should first consider the facilities he has for keeping one and after the pros and cons have been carefully gone over, when a thorough inventory of the situation has been taken, then he should decide what breed is best suited for his particular case. That is the object of this book; to investigate the various breeds suitable for city life, to point out the best way to care for the dog in health and in disease and to give such little hints about dog keeping that the novice or one-dog owner may put to good use under any contingency that may arise during the life of his pet.


Suitable Breeds. Group One—Toys.

Much depends upon the environment of the prospective dog owner, as to what breed he may satisfactorily adopt for his home. Dwellers in city flats or those living where yard room is circumscribed by narrow limits, could not think of a St. Bernard, a Great Dane, a bloodhound, or, even the medium-sized breeds, consequently it becomes manifest that he must make his choice from among the toys or smaller varieties. Suburbanites and others living on country places, on the other hand, may prefer a more serviceable-looking dog than the diminutive, but alert specimens that come under the head of toys, consequently, to aid the novice in making his selection of a suitable canine home companion, I have classified the most popular breeds in groups according to their size and general characteristics.



Pre-eminent among the small varieties is the fashionable Pekingese. He is, in the strict classification a toy, it is true. The reader may sneer at the word “toy” and fancy that the Peke, as he is popularly called, is as useless and difficult to rear as the proverbial hot-house plant, but such is not the case. He is a hard, strong, easy-to-raise animal, and one of the gamest for his inches of any breed in existence. His shaggy mane, resembling that of a lion, his dark markings[3] about muzzle and eyes, and his tawny coat, together with his sturdy frame, suggest a big little dog, and he is all of that. He makes an excellent watch dog, because he is always keen and alert and the slightest noise day or night will cause him to give the signal by his loud and rather raucous bark. There is something formidable looking about the Peke as he approaches the stranger, who dares invade the sacred precincts of his mistress or master, and as an alarm there are few small dogs that are superior.

The Pekingese sprang into popularity within the last twenty years, though he is said to be one of the oldest of Chinese breeds, from which country he was introduced into England and then to America where he soon became the vogue, and some of the wealthy people of the East paid almost fabulous figures for good specimens. While prices are now more within reason for good specimens, the Peke cannot be classed as a “poor man’s dog,” although it is possible, nowadays, to go to some of the kennels[4] making this breed a specialty and buy a “waster” at a reasonable figure. By waster is meant a specimen that, while true to his blood characteristics and in every sense as well bred as the winners, is not good enough to win on the bench. The person buying a Peke for a companion only, however, will get as much satisfaction in owning a well-bred non-winner as he probably would if he had a great champion. At the present time the fancy is breeding them as small as possible and the larger ones are not in as great demand, though they often come weighing as high as eighteen pounds when matured. The novice dog-owner would not find a fifteen to eighteen-pound Pekingese objectionable, however, for a house dog, though as a show performer he would likely be unnoticed. As a matter of fact, the fancy is now breeding them so small that their usefulness as a house dog is practically bred away. In buying specimens of this breed for house companions I would suggest one going over the ten-pound weight. First[5] because breeders will always gladly dispose of those that “come large” at a more reasonable figure, and secondly because they are more hardy and useful. It is the under ten-pound weight specimens that are the show dogs, and the smaller the better, it seems.

The Pomeranian is another dog which came into popularity within the past quarter of a century and is a close second to the Peke as a show dog today. The Pomeranian is a smaller edition of the old-time white Spitz dogs which were so popular about forty or fifty years ago. In breeding them down to the present size I have my doubts of the good that was accomplished, though there is no gainsaying the fact that a good Pomeranian of the very small type is a “foxy” specimen in the show ring. They come in all colors; black, sable white, blue mottled and in fact, in any shade imaginable. Indeed it has been said that the fashionable thing nowadays for ladies is to have a Pom of every shade to match their gowns,[6] though this is somewhat overdrawn, notwithstanding the numerous colors to be obtained.

The novice, buying a Pom for a companion only, and not for show, will be able to secure one of the larger specimens at a reasonable price much more readily than he would the very small ones, for, as in the case of the Pekes, the smaller the dog the better the show specimen, though naturally the animal must possess show points. “Foxy” in appearance describes the Pomeranian to a nicety. With full, fluffy coat, bushy tail, carried over an extremely short back, sharp nose, snappy, small black eyes and an erect ear, he is in every sense of the word a dog with a fox-like expression. At shows they are usually classified as dogs not exceeding eight pounds and those over this weight, though the larger the dog, the less chances he has of winning. For utility purposes, the overweight dogs will answer as well, if not better than the extremely small show specimens. Pomeranians, if properly reared, after once attaining maturity are usually hardy.



The English Toy Spaniel, though a very handsome, long-coated animal, is not quite so popular as the two foregoing breeds, but they are as easily reared, provided they do not come from stock that has been pampered by generations of coddling. The breed is divided into four varieties: the Blenheim, or white and orange; the Prince Charles, or tri-color (white,[8] black and tan); the ruby, or red; and the King Charles, or black and tan. All are equally handsome, but as a rule they are not as alert, or active, nor do I think as intelligent, as some of the other breeds, though there are exceptions and I have seen specimens of these varieties, reared in out-door kennels and accustomed to exercising in the open, winter and summer, that proved to be hardy and as active as a sporting spaniel. This is the exception rather than the rule, however, for many specimens will be encountered that are very poor movers.

The Japanese Spaniel at one time gave indications of becoming a very popular toy breed, but was superseded by the Pekes and Poms. No doubt much of this was due to the fact that the Japs are not a particularly hardy breed, they are more of the real lap-dog genus than most any of the toy varieties; they lack in action and seem to be well content to lie in a basket of silk cushions most of their lives, or preferably in the laps of their[9] fond mistresses. In appearance they resemble somewhat the English Toy Spaniels, though less sprightly, as a general thing. The Jap carries his tail or plume over his back while that of the toy spaniel is docked. The color, according to the standard, may be black and white, red and white, or parti-colored. The term red in this instance includes all shades of sable, brindle, lemon and orange, but the brighter the colors the more desirable the specimen. The white ground should be a pure chalk white, not of the milky or creamy color often seen in other breeds. At large shows the classification is divided under seven pounds and over seven pounds, and it may be readily observed that a Japanese spaniel under seven pounds will not make a very formidable guardian of the home.

The Toy Poodle, while never taking the dog-world by storm, has held his own for many years. He is a very active dog, inclined to be cross and snappy very frequently, and therefore an uncertain equation with children,[10] but he is very keen and the slightest noise will attract his attention. The standard calls for dogs under ten pounds in weight for the toy varieties, though there is a large poodle, which, however, does not come within the scope of this group. The toy poodle, while not as hardy as some breeds, can nevertheless stand considerable hardships and when he is reared like his larger brethren and not petted and pampered until health and vitality are gone, he is an easy dog to keep. The greatest objection some have to him is, that because his coat is white he is difficult to care for, which to a certain extent, is the truth. His coat should be curly, but wiry in texture. In action the dog is quick, proud and graceful.

The Italian Greyhound is another old breed; in fact he is one of the oldest among the toys. He is in every sense of the word, a miniature greyhound and good specimens are extremely graceful. Because of his short coat and his generally slight appearance he is a dog that will not permit of[11] much exposure, though those who breed them say that the Italian greyhound will stand the cold and the inclement winter of the north as well as any of the toy breeds, which statement is rather doubtful. For a clean, neat dog about the house, however, he is very commendable. In the matter of intelligence he does not grade up with some of the other varieties described, although he is very alert and watchful.

The Toy Black and Tan Terrier is another breed that is rather difficult to rear, although his short black and tan soft coat commends him as an indoor dog, for he is clean at all times and only a slight brushing once a day will keep him in condition. They have been breeding this variety so small that most of the specimens seen at the present time, have become apple-headed and they are as lacking in intelligence as they are in appearance. However, a black and tan weighing over ten pounds makes an excellent dog, many of them becoming keen ratters, though it is to be understood[12] that the small ones would not do for that purpose. Personally, if I wished to have a black and tan at all, I should take the Manchester, of which the toy black and tan is a miniature. The breed is not very popular in this country or England at the present time.

Among the toy terrier varieties must be included also, the Yorkshire, the Maltese and the kindred varieties. These are very pretty specimens for the fancier of oddities, but they require untold care to keep them in condition, both as to coat and flesh, hence the time spent upon them as house companions is scarcely worth the returns that one obtains.

The Brussel Griffon is another foreign dog that seemed to evoke considerable interest some years ago, but this breed also is an oddity. He is a monkey-faced, hard-coated dog with the pronounced whisker and the general wire appearance of broken-coated terriers. His weight ranges to nine pounds as the maximum for “big” dogs, while for the smaller varieties, it is six pounds. It may readily[13] be seen from this that the breed is more ornamental than useful, but a livelier, more active little dog cannot be imagined than this diminutive griffon whose place of origin is said to be Belgium.


Another Belgian dog is the Schippercke, a terrier-like animal of about ten pounds in weight. Very fiery and quick to take offense, he is not a suitable dog for children, but as a watch dog he will give the alarm at the slightest noise; furthermore, he is not averse to backing up his bark with his[14] bite. He is a very faithful dog, and once he becomes attached to one person or a family, he will remain faithful unto death. That is one of the features that appeals to most of us and one is apt to forgive his shortcomings. Very few kennels are now breeding this variety in America. The dog is black in color, with a wiry-like coat, and a well pronounced mane. His nose is sharp, his eyes small and black and his ears erect. The dog is a tailless variety; although only a small percentage of the puppies are born with this mutilation. The others have their tails removed, or gouged out when they are quite young, in fact this should be done before they leave their dam. In selecting a puppy it is well to take one with not a show of white hair and see that the ears are small, the back short, the coat dense, the eyes well set, and showing that “foxy” expression which is so characteristic of this breed and the Pomeranian.

The Pug, once a very popular breed, has now practically gone out of vogue,[15] although indications point to its resuscitation. The breed, speaking in broad terms, is not a particularly intelligent one, though the dog’s short coat, his cleanly habits, and his generally odd appearance stamped him one of the favorites of three decades ago, and it is possible that he may return to favor once more.


Suitable Breeds. Group Two—Terriers.

The terrier family is a large one in all its ramifications, and the embryo dog lover, wishing to possess one of this variety will have a wide field to go over. The terrier should have more action than the toy varieties and if it is possible, a place should be provided where he can romp out of doors for at least two or three hours a day. If that is not feasible, then he must be taken to some park or open place where he can run and exercise, for a terrier that is kept confined is as entirely out of his environment as a fish would be out of water.


Among the many breeds of terriers, there are a number which enjoy equal popularity. The Boston Terrier is the great American product; he is strictly an evolution of this country and has grown in popularity in keeping with his qualities. The Boston is a clean, well-knit dog of trappy appearance, with a short head that is a mean between the bulldog and the terrier expression,[17] if such a thing can be. He comes in various weights up to twenty five pounds, and, as a matter of fact, one finds them going as high as thirty and thirty-five, for the Boston is a mixture and does not always throw true to type. The present accepted dictum is, however, that the maximum weight should be twenty-five pounds. At dog shows the weights are divided by classes under fifteen pounds, fifteen pounds and[18] under twenty, twenty pounds and not exceeding twenty-five. The demand for the smaller weights seems greatest, but one finds more uniformity in the medium weights—that is, from fifteen to twenty pounds. The Boston terrier may be good for no practical purposes, but he is alert and will prove to be a fair guardian of the home. The appeal with this dog is his absolute trimness, his clean cut appearance, and his short coat. For people living in flats he is one of the most desirable dogs. In purchasing one of this breed it is well to see the dog before paying the money. While there are unscrupulous dealers of all breeds, it seems that more irresponsible people have taken up the sale of this breed than any other. I do not mean by this that there are not a large number of very responsible breeders, but it is the dealer—the vendor of dogs—whose word cannot always be taken at face value, therefore, in buying any breed, see that you are obtaining what you are paying for, and in buying a Boston, be sure of it from every angle.



Fox Terriers, both wire-haired and smooth, are also very popular in this country, the former probably more so at the present time than the latter, although the smooth is much more easily kept, is just as keen and alert, makes a varmint dog the equal of any, and as a house companion has many advantages over his wire-haired cousin; the latter is a beautiful dog when his coat is kept just right, but if not, he is an abomination. Incidentally it[20] may be said that it is both a science and an art to keep the coats of any of the broken-haired varieties of terriers in good order.


In temperamental characteristics there is little difference, if any, between the smooth and the wire-haired varieties, and if the dog is to be kept in the house mostly, perhaps the former would prove more satisfactory. Prices of both of these varieties have been soaring here of late, but[21] this refers only to the show specimens. It is always possible to procure a “waster” either because he does not conform to the show standard in the finer points, is oversize, or for some other reason. The fox terrier, as in fact practically all terriers, except the toy varieties and possibly Bostons, are men’s dogs, and they can furnish considerable sport if they are trained on various kinds of “varmints.” In this connection it might be said that they take to this class of work very readily, as they have been specifically bred for this purpose since the earliest days.


The Irish Terrier, is a wire-coated dog, usually brick red or wheaten in color. He is a handsome dog, but like the wire-haired fox terrier, his coat must be kept right. For gameness, there are few terriers his equal and he has been rightly named “Daredevil.” The Irish terrier is a trifle larger in size than the fox terrier. He has all of that varminty look, that fiery eye and alert expression, indicative[22] of the dog of quick action, and furthermore, he is a most intelligent animal and makes one of the best dogs for the home that may be imagined. Since the rise in popularity of some of the other smaller terrier breeds, the Irish has fallen somewhat in the estimation of the fanciers, but those who have bred him for years and have a specimen or two about would not part with the fiery Irishman for all of the other terriers combined.


The Irish terrier answers in many respects the call for an all-purpose dog, except that he is not so large as the Airedale and therefore could not hold his own in fighting big game, though for his inches, no better dog ever lived, and I have, on one or two occasions, seen Irish terriers in bear packs which proved to be just as valuable as some of the larger breeds; they were certainly just as game, and being very quick and shifty, they could do considerable damage and still come away uninjured, where a larger dog might suffer the consequences of his temerity. The Irish terrier is essentially the dog for those who do not care to keep an Airedale, but want one as game and as fearless as any dog that lives.

Still another breed that comes between the small terriers and the Airedale is the Welsh Terrier. A dog that in many points resembles the Airedale, particularly in texture and color of coat, although the head is of somewhat different formation. Welsh terriers never became common in this[24] country. Possibly because of the rapid rise of the Airedale and partly because he was not exploited like some of the other breeds. For the person wanting but one dog, however, the Welsh terrier is an excellent companion, a good watch dog with all the terrier proclivities, such as going to earth for game, and just as keen on rats and other small furred animals as the other varieties.

To the uninitiated the Welsh terrier is a miniature Airedale. In height he should be about sixteen inches, but should not have the appearance of being leggy, nor on the other hand, of standing too low on the leg. The markings—that is, color and coat, are similar to the Airedale; black or grizzle saddle, with tan head, legs and underbody. Like in Airedales, the rich deep tan and jet black bodies are most admired. His average weight should be about twenty-two pounds, though a pound one way or the other is not a handicap. While white is not desirable, a small spot on the breast or toes does not disqualify.


A dog that attracted quite a bit of attention at the New York show of 1922, was the Kerry Blue Terrier. There were only half a dozen specimens of the breed shown and as far as this country is concerned, it is a new variety, although it is said that it is one of the oldest of Irish breeds. The dog is essentially an Irish terrier in a blue-gray wire coat. It is said that the modern brick colored or wheaten Irish terrier is descended from the Kerry blue and that by generations of selection in breeding the red coats were finally obtained, but it seems that fashion is again going back to the original colors and that is how it transpires that the Kerry blues are coming into vogue. This terrier has all the good qualities of the more modern reds. To the dog lover wishing to own a dog that is somewhat out of the ordinary, the Kerry blue will appeal, though owing to the present scarcity, it is quite likely that prices will run high.



A very desirable small terrier which came into vogue twelve or fifteen years ago, is the West Highland White Terrier, one of the border varieties[27] said to be of ancient origin, but brought to his present perfection by scientific breeding and selection. The general appearance of the West Highland white terrier, as we know the breed today, is that of a small, game, hardy-looking terrier, possessed of considerable self esteem, and like all good terriers, has that “varminty” appearance that is such a distinguishing mark of this group of dogs. He is a stockily built animal, showing strength from every angle, short legs, deep in the chest, with ribs extending well to the powerful loin; very strong in quarters and in fact, with all of his strength, he impresses one as having considerable activity, which he really has, for there is no quicker and more nimble terrier on four feet than the West Highlander when it comes to a fight with rats or other “varmints,” even much larger.

The color of the West Highlander is pure white; any other color, the creamy or grey shade, is objectionable. The coat is also very important and fanciers of the breed are[28] more particular about this feature than any other. As a matter of fact, a coat that meets with the perfection that the standard calls for, is rare indeed. We hear much of the so-called double-coat, but in this breed it is demanded. The outer coat consists of harsh hair, about two inches long and absolutely free from curl. The under coat, which resembles fur, is short, soft and close. It is a real weather-resisting jacket such as we want on Airedales and various other wire-coated terriers, but which is found so seldom, even in this variety.

The West Highlander weighs from twelve to eighteen pounds; bitches usually ranging from the minimum figure to sixteen pounds, while the dogs average about two pounds more to the maximum weight. In height they measure from eight to twelve inches at the shoulder. For the prospective owner, who does not object to white dogs nor to the long coat, the West Highlander white terrier will make an excellent companion, though his comparative scarcity will probably[29] keep the prices at a high figure for some time to come.

A near relative to the West Highlander is the Cairn Terrier, a dog of similar size and characteristics of the other Scottish varieties. The dog is not very popular at this date, but being a newly cultivated, though an old breed, the prices are still prohibitive. In all essentials, however, the Cairn terrier will fill the same place as any of the small terriers.


The ever popular Scottish Terrier, or Scottie, as he is more affectionately called, is virtually one of the near relatives of the two breeds just described. He has been long and slow in coming to his own in this country, but having once attained a foothold in America he is likely to retain his place when many of the creations of faddists are forgotten. He has been becoming more popular every year as a show dog, though he never will attain the popularity accorded some of the other terrier breeds. What is more significant, however, he is rapidly[31] making himself more and more endeared to the one-dog owner. As a companion about the premises, the house or the stables, the Scottie is par excellence. A first class vermin dog, an alert watchman and game to the core, the Scottie will indeed fill the requirements of anyone wishing to own one small dog, for size and all other conditions must sometimes be taken into consideration.

The general appearance of the Scottie is that of a sharp, bright, active dog. His expression is his distinguishing mark, for he is always on the qui vive, ready, as it were, “for something to turn up.” The head is carried well up. He appears to be higher on the leg than he really is; this is due to his short, wiry coat, which is like bristles, and about two inches long all over the body. He has a compact appearance, nevertheless, his legs seem to be endowed with almost an abnormal amount of bone. His back is short, his ribs well sprung, his loin and quarters well filled up and in every essential, he is powerfully[32] put together. He carries his ears erect and they are always alert. His eyes are small and of a very dark hazel color, his tail, which is never docked, is about seven inches long and is carried with a slight upward bend, which under excitement is apt to be carried still more gaily. In height he should be from nine to twelve inches and in weight the maximum is twenty pounds. Dogs going over that are considered too large. Of recent years this breed has been becoming more popular in all parts of the country and at the present time good specimens may be bought at a very reasonable figure; that is, puppies at weaning age, or a little later. Naturally, more matured dogs, with the earmarks of becoming bench show flyers would still command a price that the average one-dog owner would not care to pay for a mere home companion. The breed is very intelligent and easily broken to all the natural pursuits of the terrier.



The Sealyham Terrier is another breed that has come into popularity recently, and with an active club here in America to foster it, it has made rapid strides during the past four or five years. In the eyes of the tyro he is a short-legged, over-weighted wire-haired fox terrier, although the standard emphasizes the fact that he should not resemble the latter breed either in character, expression or shape and such resemblance “should be heavily penalized.” As a matter of fact, in head properties there is nothing to indicate the fox terrier in a Sealyham of correct type. His head is of a different[34] formation. The skull is wide between the ears and as the dog is describes as being the ideal combination of the Dandie Dinmont and the bull terrier of twenty pounds in weight, this skull formation is supposed to be the mien between the two. It is slightly domed and rounded, with practically no stop and a slight indentation running down between the brows. The jaws are long, powerful and level, much wider and heavier than in the fox terrier. The nose is black and the nostrils wide apart. The ears are of medium size and set low, carried closely against the cheek, which characteristic is insisted upon since a forward ear carriage would resemble a fox terrier too much. The coat is dense and wiry; longer than that in which the wire-haired fox terrier is usually shown, and it should be especially profuse on head, neck and throat. The body is compact and the tail is docked and must be carried gaily. The color should be a white ground although patches of lemon, tan, brindle or badger-pied markings[35] are permissible on head and ears, though black spots are objectionable and while they do not absolutely disqualify, dogs with such markings should be severely penalized. The size of the dogs should be from nine to twelve inches and bitches slightly less. Weight in this breed is not any particular criterion and very frequently a ten-inch dog may be so compactly and sturdily built that he might weigh twenty-four pounds, while a larger one of rangier type could easily go considerably less. The Sealyham’s sphere is similar to that of the other short-legged terrier breeds; indeed, there are so many dogs of similar characteristics that the question has frequently been asked, “Why is a Sealyham?”


The Dandie Dinmont antedates the Sealyham by many years and is a dog which became famous in literature. It will be remembered by those who read Walter Scott that the hero for which the breed was named is Dandie Dinmont, one of the noted[37] personages in “Guy Mannering.” The quaint character is well drawn in this novel of Sir Walter, but his dogs, Mustard and Pepper, and Old Mustard and Old Pepper, etc., are even more minutely described. No doubt at that time this type of terrier was quite common in the border country, but it remained for dog fanciers to fix the name upon this particular variety.

The size of the Dandie is eight to eleven inches at the shoulder and the length of the dog measuring from the top of the shoulder to the root of the tail should not be more than twice the dog’s height, preferably one or two inches less. Weight ranges from fourteen to twenty-four pounds, but the ideal weight is about eighteen pounds. These weights are estimated for dogs that are in good working condition. The color is mustard and pepper and it was because of these uniform and pronounced colors that the quaint farmer in Scott’s novel could not get away from the names; all of them, as previously said, were[38] Mustards and Peppers, either young or old. The pepper in the present-day Dandie Dinmont ranges from dark bluish to a silvery grey, but the intermediate shades are preferred. The Mustards vary from reddish brown to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white. Nearly all specimens have a patch of white on the breast.

The coat is the important point, and characterizes the Dandie Dinmont. The hair should be about two inches long; that from the skull to the root of the tail, a mixture of hard and soft hair, which gives a crisp feel to the hand, but the hard hair should not be wiry as in most broken-haired terriers; the coat is in every sense of the word what is called piley. The hair on the under part of the body is softer and lighter in color than on top. The skin on the under body should accord with the color of the dog.

The Dandie Dinmont is an odd looking creature, but game to the core and a vermin dog. He is also an excellent[39] watch dog and does not hesitate to attack an intruder who might presume to trespass upon his master’s domain. To those who want a rather out of the ordinary looking dog the Dandie Dinmont will be the answer, for he will not only attract attention, but also fill every requirement.

The Bedlington is coated very much like the Dandie Dinmont, but stands up higher on the leg. He is described as the smartest, the largest and the gamest of the English terriers, but this was before the advent of the Airedale. His height is from fifteen to sixteen inches at shoulder, his back is slightly arched, while the dogs average in weight about twenty-four pounds, the bitches going slightly less. The origin of this dog is said to be in crosses in which the Dandie Dinmont and probably the otter hound might have figured. In this respect he approaches the Airedale in his early history. The Bedlington never became popular in this country and as a matter of fact, even in England he is not found in great numbers.



The Airedale is the largest of the terrier varieties. Indeed, he is such a large dog that he does not really belong in that class, for while possessing most of all the other terrier attributes, he does not go to earth for his quarry and this, in the strictest sense is what all terriers are supposed to do. Be that as it may, the Airedale has become the most popular of allround dogs, not only here in America, but in every part of the world. Whether or not too much “refinement” in breeding this dog for bench show purposes[41] will eventually ruin him for the allround utility dog that he is, still remains a mooted question, but one thing is quite certain; he has found a place in the hearts of sportsmen and this class will always breed types which will retain their usefulness, hence the history of this breed here in America may eventually parallel that of the English setter, in that there are two types—one for actual use, the other for show only. It seems assured, however, that the useful Airedale and the fined-down show dog are growing wider apart each year. The reader who is especially interested in the Airedale, is referred to my previous book, “The Airedale for Work and Show.”

The Bull Terrier, a smooth coated white dog, makes an attractive animal for the premises. He may not be so certain as a companion for children unless brought up in their company from puppyhood, but he is a good vermin dog and also a watchful guardian of the home. A pure bred white bull terrier without the admixture of bulldog[42] blood like one finds so many among the brindled varieties, commands a good price, but he is worth the money. Because of his pure white color he may not be so easily kept immaculately clean, but having a short coat, he is easily washed and in his case frequent bathing can do little or no harm, which cannot be said of a number of breeds.


Suitable Breeds. Group Three—Medium-Sized Dogs.

As with the terrier varieties, there is a wide field for selection among the medium-sized dogs, both sporting and non-sporting; consequently much depends upon what the dog is intended for. If any of the members of the household are inclined to sports afield, then one of the many varieties of spaniels would make a suitable house companion, for aside from being an alert watch dog, he is a natural all round hunter and is equally good on upland game as on water fowl. Spaniels make excellent retrievers, very good grouse and quail dogs where the mere questing for and finding of game is desired, but naturally the dog should be educated for the purpose. Unlike the pointer, the setter, or the griffon, the spaniel does not point, but finds the game and flushes it in front of the sportsman; in view of this fact he must be trained to quest within[44] gun range. This, however, is easily taught the spaniel, for all of the many varieties are intelligent animals and therefore easily educated. A spaniel makes an excellent dog for ladies who enjoy field shooting, for the reason that he is so much more easily handled than any of the bird dog varieties, and peculiarly amenable to the gentler sex.

As a guardian of the home the spaniel might not strike terror to the hearts of unwelcome intruders, like some of the terrier or other breeds, but they are good watch dogs, quick to give the alarm upon the approach of strangers, and besides, they are very docile and cleanly about the premises. There may be some objection to the long coat, on the ground that if the animal is shedding, he is prone to leave stray hairs on rugs and furniture, but in this connection it might be said that daily grooming will ameliorate this evil to a great extent, for after all is said, a dog that is allowed to frequent the house even during only a small part of the day, must[45] be kept clean whether he is a long or a short-haired one.


Of the many varieties of spaniel, the Cocker is the most popular. They come in all colors; solid blacks, reds, creams, orange and browns, but if of the latter color, it should be of a rich liver and not the washed out shades which sometimes crop out in a litter. These off-color ones should be eschewed if one wishes to conform to the standard. Neither should the whole-colored dogs have white on them, but a strip of this color on the chest, while objectionable, should not disqualify. The parti-colors are also very handsome animals. These are white and black, liver and white, orange and white, cream and white, and roans; either blue or red.

The standard weight calls for cockers ranging from eighteen to twenty-four pounds. Here of late it has become fashionable to breed them down to the minimum weight, but this is almost making toys of what was once considered one of the principal sporting[47] breeds. If the prospective purchaser intends to use his dog for sporting purposes he is advised to select one from stock that will come nearer reaching the maximum rather than the minimum weight, for the eighteen pound cocker is entirely too small for utility purposes. As a matter of fact, some years ago twenty-eight pounds was the standard maximum weight of working cockers which is really more logical in a dog that is intended for field work. At all events, it is better to have a cocker over, than under the weight allowed by the standard, if one expects to make use of him afield.

The cocker should be a neat-headed, wide-awake, serviceable looking little dog, with rather large dark eyes and an intelligent expression. He should stand on strong, well-boned, but short legs absolutely straight in front, with well bent stifles behind. His quarters should be muscular and powerful, especially when viewed from behind; short in body when viewed from above, yet standing over[48] considerable ground. He should, in short, give one the impression of a massive little dog, yet at the same time, he must have considerable speed and endurance. The coat is flat or slightly wavy, silky and very dense, with ample feather on legs and his feet should also be well supplied with hair, but the coat should never be curly. The stern is usually docked to a length of about two or three inches. This should be carried just below the level of the back and when the dog is working or animated, its action should be merry, but never carried gaily.

The Field Spaniel may be described as a larger edition of the cocker; longer and lower in body in proportion to his general make-up, but a well-knit, massive dog, the males weighing from thirty-seven to forty-five pounds, the bitches about five pounds less. The true field spaniel is always black, though his near kin is the springer which comes in parti-colors also. There are various strains of the springer spaniel, as for instance[49] the Welsh and the English, but in all essentials they are identical. The difference between the springer and the field spaniel is that the former is usually shorter in body and higher on the leg. In the matter of intelligence he is fully the equal of the cocker or the field spaniel and for field work he is probably the most practical of the three, especially when it comes to retrieving waterfowl.

The Clumber Spaniel is the largest of the land spaniels, the weight in males ranging from fifty-five to sixty-five pounds, the females from thirty-five to fifty pounds. He is a strong, sturdy, compact dog, with profuse coat, but a smaller ear of the V-shaped variety. In color he must always be white and lemon or white and orange, ticks on the head or fore legs add to his beauty. He should have few, if any markings on his body. This variety is not very numerous in this country, though in many parts of England he is used quite regularly as a sporting dog.


The Sussex is another variety of the large land spaniels, smaller, however, than the Clumber, weighing from thirty-five to forty-five pounds. In color he is a rich golden liver. In this country he is practically unknown, but he is numbered as among the oldest of breeds in England.

The Irish Water Spaniel scarcely comes within the province of this book. He is a large dog, standing well up on the leg. It is said that he is a cross between the Irish setter and the large poodle, but this may be all conjecture. At all events he stands as high at the shoulder as an Irish setter. In color he is liver; any white except on chest or toes, disqualifies. His coat is a mass of short curls back to his tail which should be entirely free from feather. On his skull he has a well-defined top-knot; indeed, this is one of the distinguishing marks of the breed. As a house dog he is almost too large though for wild fowl retrieving under any and all weather conditions, he is par excellence.



Among the non-sporting medium-sized breeds, the Chow Chow stands preeminently to the forefront. He is a Chinese breed, like the Pekingese, and considering that he breeds very true to type, it is possible that he is of more ancient origin than many of our much lauded “pure breeds” of[52] England. The chow is given credit for being a very intelligent animal; he is a good house dog and a faithful companion. In size he is about like the old-fashioned Spitz dog from which the Pomeranian is descended. In color he should be either black, red, yellow, blue, or white, but the shade should run uniform except that the underpart of the tail and inside of thighs are frequently of a lighter shade. He carries his tail curled over his back; his coat should be abundant, dense, straight and somewhat coarse in texture, with a soft, wooly undercoat. His ears are carried erect. He has a rather peculiar sour expression and his eyes are dark and small in all but the blues, in which a light color is permissible. One of the distinguishing features of a chow is his tongue, which in pure specimens is blue-black. His nose should also be black, large and wide.

The chow became popular about a quarter of a century ago, then for a time the interest lagged, but of late years his popularity seems to be increasing[53] once more. The dog is perhaps among what one might call the high-priced varieties, but it is always possible to buy a “waster” which will answer the same purpose for a companion as the perfect show dog. A breeder of chows once said to me: “This breed has all the oriental mysticism about it that one finds in everything that comes from the Far East; they seem to know what you are thinking about and at times, as they lie there on the rug, one imagines they are actually going to speak and tell you what they have on their minds. But once your friend, a chow is always your friend.”


The French Bulldog is another breed that has come into great popularity during the past fifteen years, especially among the ladies. As far as his actual usefulness is concerned, we cannot say much, although his admirers might probably take one to task if this statement were made in their presence. He makes a delightful companion, smooth of coat and clean in his habits. For the house[54] he is probably one of the most desirable breeds among the many, even though his real utility might be questioned. However that may be, the dog is popular and good specimens command high prices.

In appearance the French bulldog resembles the Boston in many respects—that is, a Boston of the[55] heavier type and with uncut ears, but he is more muscular and substantial in appearance. His ears must be of the pronounced “bat” variety; his head, large, square and broad; skull almost flat; the underjaw, like the English bulldog, is large, powerful, and undershot, with the muzzle well laid back and the muscles of the cheeks fully developed. The tail should be either straight or screwed (but not curly) short, and hung low. The eyes are wide apart set low down in the skull, as far away from the ears as possible. Back must be short, the chest broad, the forelegs straight and muscular and wide apart, while the hind legs should correspond in the matter indicating strength. The French bulldog standard calls for two weights; dogs under twenty-two pounds and those of twenty-two pounds and not exceeding twenty-eight. The colors are any shade of brindle, though the darker the better. The novice looking for a good specimen, however, should be careful about the absolute disqualifying[56] points as for instance, other than bat ears, any mutilation, solid black, black and white, black and tan, liver and mouse color, eyes of different color (as they will come sometimes), nose other than black and hare lip, which is also a fault that frequently crops up and many unscrupulous breeders are apt to foist such undesirable specimens upon the unsuspecting novice who might be none the wiser.

The English Bulldog is another of the “manufactured breeds” so grotesquely ugly that he is beautiful in the eyes of some. The bulldog will attract attention anywhere, but as to his sphere of usefulness in these days of his grotesque appearance, there is always room for doubt. There was once a time when the bulldog was a shifty and useful animal, but as he is at present bred, this quality has, to a great extent disappeared with his “improvement,” although his admirers will claim stoutly that he is a good watch dog and quite intelligent. His very artificiality makes him a dog[57] which is difficult to rear, being susceptible to various diseases to a much greater degree than most of the more normal breeds.

This breed was formerly known as the dachshund.

Everyone, even he who is only remotely interested in dogs, knows the Badger Dog, if not under this name, at least under his old appellation of dachshund, by which he was known up to the time of the World War when his Teutonic origin was expediently disguised under the name that he now bears. Owing to his length of body and his abbreviated legs he has always been known as the original “sausage” dog, for his length of body is several times his inches in height, which should be, at shoulder, only from 7 1/8 to 8 1/5 inches. The weight is divided at bench shows, as for instance, dogs under sixteen and one-half pounds, bitches under fifteen and one-half pounds. Middleweights from the maximum lightweight division to twenty-two pounds. Heavyweights, dogs and bitches over twenty-two pounds.

The badger dog, while not classified[59] among the terriers, has the characteristics of that family, for he goes to ground for his quarry, and in every other way shows his terrier characteristics. On the other hand, he is also a fairly good trailer and, like the beagle, will hunt rabbits. As a house companion he is intelligent and cleanly; his short, satiny coat fitting him eminently for a ladies’ dog. The breed comes in a variety of colors: black and tan, all tan, all red, yellowish red and spotted in various shades.


The Beagle, while not to be considered a house dog, is small and may be kept very nicely in a small place, provided he is allowed to run and exercise in the open every day and is given the opportunity to hunt his favorite game—rabbits—frequently. As a keen-nosed dog for his own sphere he has no equal, and having been bred for years with this sole purpose in view, his intelligence is concentrated along these lines and not toward making him an allround home companion, but given the opportunity and the human companionship, his[60] intelligence may be improved to a wonderful degree. The beagle is in every sense of the word a miniature foxhound, ranging in height from nine to fifteen inches which is the maximum; dogs over this height are disqualified at bench shows and beagle trials. The classification in vogue at the present time is dogs thirteen inches and under, and dogs over thirteen and not over fifteen inches.


The Whippet, which is a miniature English greyhound, is a neat, cleanly dog, not perhaps a desirable companion when all essentials of an intelligent dog are taken into consideration, but he is a trim animal, very distinguished in appearance, and short of coat, hence he is worth considering on this account, if for no other. At the present time the whippet is coming into greater popularity, mainly because of the fact that bench show clubs are giving him ample classification and further, because as a racing dog he has gained quite a vogue in some parts of the country.


Among the many intelligent non-sporting dogs is the Large Poodle, a dog somewhat larger than the chow. He is in every sense of the word a larger edition of the toy poodle, but a much more useful dog because of his size and superior intelligence. The poodle is one of the most readily trained dogs in existence today. As a trick dog he has no equals and he may be broken to retrieve from land and water with the same facility as[63] any of the sporting retrievers or spaniels. There are two varieties of the poodle; the corded and the curly. The latter is the more common and also the more practical, for the corded poodle’s coat is the most difficult of any among the canine race, to care for. The hair on the latter hangs from the dog in long rope-like strands, almost touching the ground and unless it is given daily attention it is likely to become matted and soiled. The corded poodle is covered with short curls all over his body. It is customary to clip them about one-third; that is, the coat is left on head, neck and front, extending well back of the shoulders while the loin, hips and back legs are closely clipped, leaving a tuft here and there and on the end of the docked tail. A well cared for poodle makes a unique appearance. The breed comes in all black, all white, all blue and all red. The colors should be solid—that is, on blacks there should be no white and vice versa.

A breed that promised to come into[64] popularity some years ago is the foreign born Samoyede. Although it is not so many years ago that this breed lived in a semi-wild state in Siberia where reclaimed specimens were used for hunting bear, and by the natives of Lapland, he was used for rounding up tame elk. The samoyede is peculiarly amenable to civilization and the companionship of human beings. Fifteen or twenty years ago the breed was seen in fairly large numbers on the show benches of this country and England. After that there came a lull, but of late he seems to be gaining in popularity. In the far north he was used as a sledge dog like the husky and other arctic breeds. The dog is long-coated and in many respects resembles the Spitz, though he is larger than the average of those specimens. He may not be the ideal dog to have about in the home where there are children as he is of uncertain temperament, but he is a rather unusual looking animal for which reason he has gained a certain amount of notoriety.



The Doberman Pinscher, which is really a terrier possessing characteristics of the Airedale, is another dog which, when he once becomes fully known and appreciated for his sterling qualities, will become a more general home favorite. He is smooth coated, prick-eared and black and tan in color, weighing in the neighborhood of thirty-five to forty pounds. He is very intelligent and is as easily taught to perform the duties of an allround “varmint dog” as any breed in existence. As a police dog he is said to be even more readily trained than the breed which is supposed to be a specialist in that sphere—namely the shepherd dog—until lately known as the German or Belgian shepherd dog.

While on the subject of the latter breed, it might be said in passing, that this dog is gaining in popularity each year. He is said to be intelligent, in fact he is easily trained, but here also is a breed which is somewhat uncertain in temper despite the stories to the contrary. As a watch dog he cannot be surpassed. For those having[66] country estates or large enough out-door space, this dog is a very desirable one, but it is scarcely possible to keep one of these in limited quarters.

The same may be said of any of the larger breeds, and as this book is devoted to the dogs that are suitable for the large towns and cities we shall refer the aspiring fancier who is bent upon going in for the large dogs to procure a copy of “Dogcraft,” a former work of mine which gives the standards of all breeds, large and small.


Housing Problems.

The proper housing of a dog is one of the important, if not the most important questions in dog keeping. We are assuming that the budding dog fancier has decided upon what breed he wants to own and has found an individual to his liking. Perhaps the purchase has been made and he has brought his canine acquisition home to find that he has never given the question of housing him any thought. Under such circumstances he is in a dilemma. His new charge is like a white elephant on his hands. Naturally, if the dog is still a young puppy some make-shift arrangement may be made, perhaps in some odd corner of the house, but it must be remembered that all puppies, aside from the fact that they are not house-broken are also a nuisance in many other ways, for they have a special predilection for the master’s slippers or some article of wearing apparel belonging[68] to the mistress of the house, and they take special delight in tearing such things to pieces for the mere amusement of the thing and because they must have an outlet for their excess of energy. Another chapter will be devoted to the early training lessons, so let us, therefore, in this chapter, take up the question of sleeping quarters and a playground for the youngster.

Where the dog is a medium-sized one, or a toy, perhaps, it will not be necessary to provide out-door quarters except for exercising, and therefore, an arrangement may be made for the new dog to occupy a place in the kitchen or basement, but it must be a place where he will learn to go either for the night or during the day time when he wishes a quiet nap all to himself. Personally, I am no advocate for keeping a dog in the house night and day. It is true, many dog lovers do this and when the breed is no larger than say, a fox terrier or even a chow, the arrangement may be satisfactory enough, but never, under[69] any circumstance, allow a dog to have the run of the house at all hours of the day or night. If you have decided to allow him to sleep in the house, provide a box or basket large enough for the purpose. Put this in some corner in the kitchen or even in the basement, though unless this latter place is absolutely dry and subject to ventilation, it is not a desirable place for sleeping quarters. In providing a sleeping place, whether it be basket, box or bench, it should be raised several inches above the floor. This is to obviate draughts which are sure to prevail in cold weather, for no matter how tight a door may fit there is always a certain amount of cold air blowing in through the crevice at the bottom, and incidentally, this is one of the most frequent causes for colds, catarrh or even pneumonia. If you have your doubts about it, try sleeping upon the floor on a cold night yourself. If the dog be a toy breed, a shallow basket provided with a pillow filled with pine of cedar shavings, or pine needles is a most suitable bed.[70] The pillow should be covered with some coarse, heavy material that will not tear easily and should be a covering that goes over the pillow proper; the material inside whether shavings or pine needles should be encased in another cover. The idea being that the outer covering can be removed and washed frequently, for no matter how clean a dog may be, the canine smell will in time permeate the cover and it must be changed and washed at least once every two weeks if absolute cleanliness is desired. For most of the larger breeds, a carpet or rug will be sufficient bedding. Loose bedding, such as shavings or straw is not to be thought of in the house.

The box or basket provided for the bed should be large enough to permit the dog to lie at his ease. If a box is used, the better plan is to remove one side with the exception of a small strip at the bottom to hold the bedding in and of course, the top should also be removed. These sleeping boxes or baskets should be put out in the sun and air every week or so and when necessity[71] demands, they should be scrubbed with warm soap water, to which a few drops of Creolin-Pierson may be added. This will keep the sleeping box clean and obviate any possibility of vermin, for once fleas infest a place where a dog frequents, then all thought of housing indoors must be abandoned.

Far the better plan, however, is to provide sleeping quarters in the garage or stable, especially for the larger breeds; in fact, all breeds except toys. In cold weather these boxes may be closed on top and on all sides, leaving only a small opening for entrance or exit. The advantage of this being that such boxes can be filled with good, clean straw in cold weather and there are very few dogs who cannot sleep comfortably and warmly in such a bed, even when the mercury is down close to the zero mark. Terriers, as a matter of fact, are very hardy and will really do better in an out-building of this kind than in the house or basement. Naturally, one must be governed according to circumstances and[72] if the owner of a dog has no building on the premises, part of which may be used for his pet’s quarters he can build a small house out of doors and provide a runway in connection. Nearly all of the wire, or long-haired breeds will do well in these out-door kennels the year round, provided the bedding is warm, the box free from draughts, and a piece of carpet or burlap is tacked over the opening in the coldest of weather. This should be arranged in such a way that it is loose on the sides and bottom, so as to permit of easy entrance and exit.

In building an out-door house for the dog it is well to adopt more modern plans than the old-time “dog house” closed on top and all sides with the exception of the door in front. This style has been in vogue and has answered the purpose for many a high-bred dog, but if the owner wishes to have something more elaborate he might build a small house having a hallway or vestibule before reaching the sleeping quarters proper. Such a house must be built[73] double the size of the ordinary one to allow for the extra “room.” It should also be so constructed that it may be opened from the top, either by supplying hinges to the roof which make it possible to raise either side, or the roof may be so constructed that the entire top of the house can be lifted off. This will permit of easy cleaning of the interior. It is well to keep the interior whitewashed. A coating of this every few months will aid very materially in keeping the place free from vermin.

When it is possible to provide a runway or small enclosure where the dog may exercise in at any time he desires, it is far better than to chain him. These runways can be constructed cheaply, of heavy mesh wire. In constructing this it must be with a view of making them high enough to prevent the dog from leaping or climbing over. A good plan to adopt is to build the fence and then put another strip of wire mesh a foot or eighteen inches wide horizontally from the top of the posts, allowing this[74] to go on the inside, thus even though the dog is inclined to jump or climb, when he reaches the top of the fence, this extra width of wire will prevent him from going over. Another precaution must be taken against burrowing out. This is easily done by digging a trench and allowing the wire to go into the ground a foot or more, then filling this trench up with stones or brick and covering with earth. No dog will be able to dig under such a fence.

If a dog must be chained to his kennel, as sometimes is the case, he should be given at least two hours of freedom every day. Far the better way is to extend a wire close to the ground, from the kennel to a post thirty or forty feet (more if possible) from this. The post at the far end should be driven or planted in the ground, allowing only enough above the surface to attach the wire to, for dogs have a faculty of getting their chains twisted about a post that might be dangerous or even fatal to them. A ring should be put on this wire to[75] which the swivel of the chain may be attached. This gives the animal a certain amount of freedom and exercise, and it will soon become noticeable how he takes advantage of it. It is needless to say that all kennels out of doors should be built of matched boards dove-tailed together so as to admit no draughts, furthermore, the kennel should be placed on a foundation or on piles several inches from the ground. For more elaborate plans of kennels when more dogs are kept, the reader is referred to an earlier work of mine entitled “Practical Dog Keeping for the Amateur.”


Becoming Acquainted—Early Lessons.

While most any breed of dog under one year old will soon learn to adapt himself to new friends and environment, and therefore no stipulated time is imperative as to what age he should be, at the time of his purchase, there is something about the wee youngsters of eight or ten weeks old that appeals to all, and the general thing is to obtain your puppy shortly after he is weaned.

It is true, there are some objections to this plan, principally because a puppy of this tender age is still unbroken to the house and is also more susceptible to the ordinary ills that beset the young life of practically all canines, but on the other hand, there is something particularly interesting in a wee puppy and he will, as a rule, soon become the pet of the entire household. As for the ills, with ordinary care, one can tide the youngster over these much more easily than[77] the novice may imagine. As a matter of fact, I would rather begin with a twelve weeks old puppy and break him to cleanliness about the house than I would a dog of one year old, for in a majority of cases, when purchasing a puppy of the latter age, you will be told that he is house-broken, when as a matter of fact he is not, consequently this education must begin at a rather late age. Another reason why the very young puppy is more satisfactory is because there is a greater interest in watching him develop physically as well as mentally; therefore, all things considered, I would advise selecting your dog when he is still a mere baby; which means under three months of age.

As for breed, that is a matter to decide according to your own inclinations. The young of all animals are interesting, but this is particularly so of dogs, irrespective of the breed. Even the veriest mongrel, as a small puppy, is a most engaging creature.

Assuming that you have purchased your puppy and taken him home and[78] he is one of those innocent-looking balls of fluffy hair from which a pair of sharp eyes protrude, and short legs carry his wobbly body about. Is it not only natural that everyone of the household will make much over him, if they are normal human beings? It will be noted that even though this bit of dog flesh is still less than twelve weeks old, how readily he will make up with them. A young puppy, still unaccustomed to the rebuffs of the world and the “slings and arrows” of canine fortune has confidence in all whom he encounters. His perceptions are keen, however, and he will soon learn that there are some or at least one in the family to whom he may attach himself as his real master or mistress, and therefore this should be the person to teach him his early knowledge of household etiquette. It should be this person, also, who imposes upon himself or herself the duty of feeding the puppy. Of course this is not entirely essential, but if it is left to one person, it may be generally taken for granted that the youngster[79] will be fed regularly and not too much. When the entire household looks after the feeding, the chances are that he will be too well cared for, and too frequent feeding is one of the banes of dog-keeping. An overabundance of food is more dangerous than too little, although I am no advocate of the starvation plan.

The matter of feeding will be taken up in the next chapter, so let us pass on to the puppy’s early education. In the first place, if a secluded nook has been decided upon where he is to sleep nights, he should be introduced to this the very first night. To begin by pampering him is only deferring a duty that must be done sooner or later. Assuming that he has a basket or box in the kitchen, the last thing before he is put to bed, it is well to feed him. At this early stage the last feed in the evening may consist of milk and bread, or any of the puppy meals with milk poured over. Put him in his bed, turn out the lights and leave him. The chances are that he will not remain in his bed, but come out and[80] go near the door communicating with the other apartments of the house, and whine. Go to him, chide him and put him back in his bed, commanding him to lie down. This, of course, he will not understand at once and it is quite likely that for the first three or four nights he will make life hideous by his howling. However, it is surprising how soon he will learn that he must make the best of a new condition, for to him it is an entirely new situation in life. Coming from his litter mates in a home where he has been accustomed to the association of his mother, his brothers and sisters, it is quite natural that the nostalgia, or homesickness, should oppress him. Be firm, however, and make him “stay put” not only the first night, but every night and he will soon be broken of the night howling.

All dogs are naturally cleanly in their habits and it will be noticed that even very young puppies will go some distance away from their nests to obey the call of nature, consequently when the puppy is brought into the home,[81] correct habits may soon be taught. The principal care is to catch him in the act and then remove him summarily from the house. If he persists, a very slight tap or two and a word of reprimand as he is being banished may assist quite materially in making him understand. Some breeds are more easily broken than others. I have found Airedales and cocker spaniels very easy to break of uncleanly habits. Pointers and setters require more time, but on the whole, most of the medium-sized breeds can be broken very readily. The new owner should not lose sight of the fact, however, that he must not be too severe. Firmness and prompt action are the principal requisites that must be kept in mind in breaking a puppy, but brutality never succeeds.

One of the earliest lessons that any young dog should be taught is his name. This should be chosen as early as possible and whenever the attention of the puppy is to be attracted, he should be called by his name. All puppies will come to most anyone[82] who will play with them. On such occasions it is well to give the youngster his first lessons. Call him to you, using the name you have selected. If he comes to you, pet and fondle him, repeating the name meanwhile, and reward him with a choice morsel to eat. Thus, in a very short time the dog will learn to come promptly when called. Teaching to whistle may be done in much the same manner, either in a large room or in a yard. Blow the whistle when he is some distance from you and call his name immediately after. He will be attracted, but will come at the sound of his name and not the whistle. By frequent repetition, however, he will soon learn to associate the blast of the whistle with the verbal command and come to you promptly, especially if at first he is rewarded with the ever-present choice morsel.

If your dog happens to be a spaniel or one to be used as a sporting companion, retrieving is an accomplishment which is a very excellent one. Any dog will run after a ball if it is[83] thrown from him after his attention is first attracted. If one begins when the pupil is still quite young he may be taught to become a perfect retriever through the “Play Method,” as described in my book, “The Working Dog and His Education.” When the ball is thrown the command should be given to “Fetch!” The puppy will get the ball nine times out of ten, but he is likely to run away with it and toss it about in play. He should be induced to bring it to you or you must go to him, bring him to where you were standing when the ball was thrown and gently take it out of his mouth, repeating the word “Fetch!” As in the other lessons, reward him with a bite to eat. A little of this play every day will make him enjoy this pastime and in the end he will become a retriever. He may also be taught to retrieve from water in the same manner, although at first the ball should be thrown into the water only far enough so that the puppy need but get his feet wet in retrieving it. It may be thrown out farther and[84] farther as the pupil progresses and in the end he will enjoy this as much as land retrieving, especially if he is a dog of the spaniel varieties. Airedales are also easily taught to become perfect retrievers.

Another lesson which all dogs should learn is to remain at heel. First it is necessary to teach them to lead. Put a collar on the puppy and allow it to remain a day or two before going further. When he is accustomed to this, attach the lead and call him to you. He will likely pull back or buck jump a few times; keep a tight line and allow him to go as far as he likes. When he becomes passive, call him to you and draw in the lead. He may pull back or he may be frightened, but pull him to you and then pet him and reward him with a bit to eat. He will soon learn to lead.

After he once leads well then take him out with you on the street or in the park. If he pulls ahead of you draw him back and give the command “Heel!” He may remain behind for[85] a moment, but dart ahead again in a moment when he thinks you off guard. Check him up and put him back of you once more with the same command to “Heel!” If he goes along in this manner, fairly well after a few lessons, you have accomplished the first step. Later it may be necessary to carry a light switch which should be used on every occasion when the dog attempts to forge ahead. Only a light tap on the nose is necessary, but as it is given the command to heel should also be uttered. In a short time the dog should be taken out without the cord and kept at heel, but if he becomes unruly and does not remain in his position the lead should be immediately snapped into the ring of the collar and he should be given a few more lessons of the earlier kind. Eventually he will understand that he must remain behind his master until the command is given to “Go!” or “Hie on!” and this latter command he will obey without much teaching, for it is the natural inclination of all dogs to run on ahead of their masters,[86] and they will be prompt to take advantage of the permission to do so.

For fuller lessons on breaking, I would suggest that the reader procure a copy of my former book, “The Working Dog and His Education.”


The Food Question—When to Feed—Frequency of Feeding—Water.

With but one dog in the household or on the premises, the question of food is not a serious one. The scraps from the table of a family of four should be sufficient to supply the entire ration of the dog, although occasionally it is advisable to give him a change in the way of scraps of raw beef, large, soft bones to gnaw upon, and by variety it might also be well, say once a week, to procure the meat or trimmings at your butcher’s out of which a broth may be made. This is always a wholesome diet, especially if it is poured over stale bread, dog biscuits or any of the bread stuffs that cannot be used on the table.

First of all let me disabuse the reader of the old theory that meat is injurious for the dog. Taking the race as a whole, meat should form the principal diet. The dog is a naturally carnivorous animal and even though[88] he has been under domestication for thousands of years his organs of mastication and digestion have undergone only a very slight, if indeed, any change. With this in mind, the dog owner is enabled to feed intelligently. Naturally, change of environment from his wild state has made conditions different; he does not obtain the amount of exercise that his wild ancestors did, ranging and roaming about the country in search of their daily sustenance, consequently he cannot be fed entirely the same, but nevertheless the idea which through some unknown way became prevalent years ago that meat is injurious to dogs and likely to cause disease is entirely erroneous. The principal point to keep before one is the quantity of food and the frequency of feeding. A dog which obtains considerable exercise in the way of hunting, must have more meat than one that is exercised only an hour or two each day. This is but natural; the man whose profession keeps him indoors does not require the same substantial food of the[89] one who labors in the fields all day, and so it is with the dog. Ordinary intelligence should teach proper discretion in this respect.

Table scraps usually consist of all the necessary concomitants to a good ration. Bits of meat, bread crusts, gravies, vegetables, etc., all go to make up the waste from the table in any ordinary family. Bones, if they are large ones, may be fed, but bones from fish, poultry or small game should be eliminated if for no other reason but the possibility of their causing trouble in the intestinal canal. If one does not believe what trouble this may produce let him take the leg bone of a chicken or lamb, place them on a stone and strike them a sharp blow with a hammer. He will see at once that they are crushed into a hundred tiny splinters. One can readily imagine what havoc this may do if they should lodge in the stomach or intestines of a dog. Perhaps one might feed these bones to a dog throughout his entire life without ill results, but on the other hand,[90] trouble might ensue, hence to be on the safe side, it is better to take no chances.

Vegetables make a good bulk food, but they should be fed very sparingly, and then only in connection with the other food. There is little nutriment in vegetables for a dog; potatoes are of no value and are more harmful than beneficial and the idea that dogs must be fed garlic, tomatoes, onions and the like has been exploded long ago. A very little of these in the regular food is passable, but do not attempt to make a vegetarian of your dog. Corn meal, in its place, is well enough fed occasionally, but as a regular food it is harmful, especially in summer, as it causes skin irritations, because it is too heating. Oat meal is some better, and rice, perhaps, the best of all, but any of these foods should be fed only occasionally. Some breeds, such as Yorkshire terriers, Maltese and the like do very well with little meat and some say they should not have it at all, but even this is questionable.


In large kennels it is well to cook one’s own food or make a bread composed of unbolted wheat, a little rice, meat and a few well cooked vegetables, the whole to be thoroughly cooked and then baked into a bread in a slow oven which will cook it through and through so that it will keep for a long time, but the owner of one dog may as well dismiss this as unnecessary. To summarize: feed what the family table offers, procure meat from your butcher occasionally, for the broth and bones previously referred to, and do not overlook the raw meat, which should be shredded or chopped finely and fed three or four times a week in small quantities, for young dogs, but in larger portions for grown ones. It is also well to obtain large bones with the meat still clinging to them. Dogs love to tear the meat from the bones and they also obtain considerable satisfaction in gnawing the bones. Even puppies three months old and under may be fed raw meat in small quantities to good advantage, and from personal[92] experience I have found that puppies thus fed will thrive better than those who obtain little or none of this kind of diet.

For very young puppies the natural diet is milk, hence when you obtain your new dog, assuming that he is three months old or under, see that he obtains an abundance of this, but do not compel him to live on a milk and bread diet entirely. Feed him a dish of this in the morning; and it might be well to give him another small feed of this about ten o’clock, then again at two and so on, until he is fed about five times during the day, but some of the meals should consist of broth and cooked meat, with an occasional feed of raw flesh. Puppies, as they grow older, should be fed less often, and at four months, three meals a day are sufficient. At this stage, the first meal in the morning may consist of milk and stale bread, but the following ones may be of table scraps or the broth made from the meat obtained from the butcher, poured over stale bread of biscuits,[93] giving with the liquid also a sufficient quantity of the meat. At a year old the dog may be fed as any older dog is fed.

The question of frequency of feeding matured dogs has been much discussed. Many kennels feed but once daily and that meal is given in the evening. This should consist of as much in quantity as the dog will eat. The more humane method for grown dogs, however, is to feed a light meal in the morning and the heavy one in the evening. Most dogs thrive well on this, provided they obtain a sufficient amount of meat to keep their natural desire for flesh food satisfied. The dog owner will soon learn how to use discretion in feeding and obtain best results, but those who wish to go further into this food question are cited to my previous book, “Practical Dog Keeping For the Amateur.”

As to water, it must be borne in mind that the dog requires water at all times of the day or night and a vessel containing pure, fresh water should always be accessible.



While we all recognize the importance of good food as being conducive to a dog’s well being, many overlook the fact that exercise, grooming and washing are almost equally essential. This is particularly true of exercise. No matter how well a dog is fed, no matter what his care may be otherwise, he will become sluggish and out of sorts if he is unable to obtain a sufficient amount of daily exercise and the more that falls to his lot, the less liable is he to disease, for it is a well-known fact among human beings that exercise is one of the essentials of life and by the same token this is so of the dog. Without exercise the animal will not assimilate his food and while the digestive organs will perform their functions for a long time, eventually they will do so under protest, for the food taken into the system is not properly oxidized, drainage is impeded and the general[95] sewerage system becomes faulty. No drugs will regulate this condition of affairs effectively and in time the result of this sedentary life begins to show in the dog’s eyes, his coat, and even his nerves. Mange and various eczematous diseases are also likely to appear, and many other disorders are likely to follow. Consequently, if one takes upon himself the responsibility of keeping a dog he must see to his exercise as religiously as he does to his food.

The question may be asked, how much exercise must a dog have in order to keep him in good condition? To this no defined rule can be laid down, for dogs, like humans, vary and one must be governed accordingly. Most young puppies, because of their natural exuberance of spirits, generally move about sufficiently of their own volition, and thus keep in good condition by this very natural process, but as the dog grows older he is not so prone to run and play, and therefore must be encouraged. This exercise, it is scarcely necessary to say,[96] should be given in the open. If the owner of a dog has a back yard where the dog may run and play out in the air and the sunshine, the question of exercise is not a serious one, but people who live in restricted quarters will find it more of a problem.

If one has access to a vacant lot, a common, a park, or other open space where he may allow his dogs to run unmolested, always provided he is at hand to watch them, then the question settles itself, but where this is not possible there is only one other way and that is to take the dog out on lead, walking him from one to three hours, according to the breed and the requirements of the individual, for as previously stated, some dogs require more exercise than others. It should not be forgotten that a dog running at large covers five or six times the amount of ground that he could possibly cover while on lead, and this must be taken into consideration. Naturally this requires time, but one may always find a spare hour or two mornings and evenings that may be[97] utilized in this manner, and thus owner as well as dog obtains good, healthful recreation.

Another good way to exercise dogs in summer is to take them to a pond or river where they may swim about in the water, for nothing brings all the muscles into play better than swimming. Nearly all dogs can be taught to take to water, and some of the breeds as for instance Airedales, the spaniel varieties, and also pointers and setters, dearly love this diversion. After disporting in the water for an hour or so, if a plot of grass can be found nearby where the dogs can roll and dry themselves, it will not only add to the enjoyment of master and dog, but will tend to keep the animals’ coats clean.

Another point that should be borne in mind is, all dogs should be allowed to exercise in a manner that is compatible with their natural habits. For instance, a beagle should be taken to the open and allowed to hunt rabbits, a bird dog should be turned loose in the open fields and terriers of every[98] description should be given the opportunity to dig for rats, mice or other “varmints.” If this cannot be done every day, the dogs should be given this opportunity at least once a week, especially during the season when this is feasible.

Summarizing, the owner must always bear in mind that a certain part of the day his dog must be allowed the air and the sunshine. Even in winter when there is little sunshine, or on rainy days, the dog will enjoy being out and free for a short time.

Grooming is another very important essential to the welfare of the dog. Every dog, no matter whether he is short or long-coated, should be brushed at least once daily and by brushing is meant good, vigorous friction. For the short-haired varieties a short-bristled brush or a hound glove are the proper implements, and for the long-coated breeds a brush with stiff bristles from one and one-half to two inches long, is very useful. After this brushing, rubbing with the hand will put a polish on the coat[99] that is described by fanciers as “cherry ripe.” Wire-coated terriers require some special treatment to keep their coats in show shape, but ordinary brushing daily and plucking of superfluous hair occasionally, will always tend to keep them presentable for every-day life. Not only is this daily grooming essential to keep the dog’s coat free from soil and filth, but it tends to keep the blood in circulation, and to ward off skin troubles and also parasites, which despite precautions, will sometimes take up their quarters in the coats of the most genteel dogs.

During the winter it is seldom necessary to wash a dog provided he is groomed daily, but in summer, a bath now and then is very beneficial to most breeds, although owners of some show varieties object to bathing their dogs on the ground that it softens the coat. However, the average owner will do his dog little, if any harm, by washing him once a week during the summer. To wash a medium-sized dog, an ordinary tub or portable tin[100] bath tub will be found satisfactory. The soap used should be selected with some care. Those soaps containing a large percentage of alkali are not advised, nor are the highly scented kinds desirable. The old-fashioned pure Castile is about as good as any and nearly all of the higher grades of tar soaps are good. The latter not only produce profuse lather, but possess excellent cleansing qualities and their ingredients have a salutary effect on the skin and hair. There are also a number of good dog soaps on the market, prepared especially for cleansing and freeing the dog from vermin, both fleas and lice, should they exist. In the summer nearly all dogs will acquire a certain amount of fleas and it is well to use either the prepared dog soaps or some other preparation that will kill the fleas. In this connection it might be said that a good flea exterminator is any of the creosote preparations to be used in one in fifty proportions. That is, to one part of the creosote preparation use fifty parts of lukewarm[101] water. Saturate the entire coat and every part of the body with this preparation, but exercise care not to get any of it in the eyes or mouth. After the dog has been thoroughly saturated in this, he may be bathed with ordinary soap and water. However, the water should always be lukewarm, even in the warmest of weather. Not only will the lukewarm water cleanse more thoroughly, but it will not be so much of a shock as when cold water is used. For rinsing, clear water, a few degrees cooler may be used. Be sure to dry thoroughly with towels, but rub the way the hair lies. After drying with the towels the dog should be well brushed and if the weather is the least cool he should not be allowed out of doors for several hours after the bath unless he is kept in action. It is always well to give the bath several hours after his meals, or just before them; never directly after eating.

Smooth coated dogs are more easily bathed than the long-haired varieties, as they can be dried very[102] readily, but with the long-haired breeds extreme care should be taken in the drying process and the combing out of the coat. It is scarcely necessary to add that the inside of the ears should be well dried. In washing a dog, always begin with the head and work backward. The animal should be stood in the tub and the water applied with a dipper which should be ready at hand for the purpose.

For some breeds, such as Maltese and Yorkshire terriers many prefer the egg shampoo to soap, although Yorkshires may be safely washed with the suds of the soap, by making a lather and immersing the animal in this. The formula for the egg shampoo is to break up and lightly beat four eggs in each pint of water. Naturally, the egg shampoo is beneficial for any dog no matter what the breed, but it may be readily imagined how many eggs would be required to shampoo four or five St. Bernards.

In the event that frequent washing causes the hair to become unnaturally[103] dry, a mixture of glycerine and water, one part in four, is advisable. This may be applied before the dog is thoroughly dried and the final hand rubbing will bring all the sheen, life and luster back to the coat. Some kennel men use cocoa butter in place of the glycerine. This is applied by dipping a comb into the cocoa butter and going through the hair with this after the dog has been dried. This should be followed by vigorous hand rubbing.

Reverting again to fleas, that bane of all dog owners, too much care cannot be taken to prevent these pests from obtaining the upper hand. The bedding must be frequently changed and the sleeping places thoroughly cleansed, but the dog himself must be watched. The creosote preparations (and there are many of them) are considered the best exterminators and if used once a week in summer, no dog should harbor fleas, provided his sleeping quarters are clean. However, some might object to this preparation on toy dogs and to those the[104] following is recommended: Carbolic acid, one-half ounce; laudanum, one ounce; bicarbonate of potassa, one dram; water, one and one-half pints. Pour a small amount into a hand basin and apply all over the body with a brush or sponge, rubbing it well into the skin. To those who prefer a dry form of exterminator, Dalmatian or Persian insect powder is recommended. The dog should be placed on a newspaper, the powder dusted well into the coat and allowed to remain for a few minutes, after which it should be brushed out while the dog remains standing on the paper. After this process is completed, roll up paper, powder, fleas and all and burn.


If Sickness Comes.

Where but one dog, or even two or three are kept in a home, the danger of sickness is very small, especially if the behests as laid down in the preceding chapters are followed. Dogs in the home are not exposed like those which are kept in a kennel where new ones are constantly coming in and going out. Nor is the danger of contagious or infectious disease as great as when the dogs are exhibited at bench shows. Nevertheless, the highly bred dog is a fine-spun piece of mechanism and it is therefore best to know what to do as first aid in case sickness does come. To the novice, however, my advice is, send for the veterinarian, if a good one lives in your vicinity, as soon as you notice something seriously wrong with your dog. If no qualified canine practitioner is available, then seek the advice of some dog expert, but do not resort to all manner of dosing for[106] dosing’s sake, as so many do, for in many cases too much medicine has led to more serious consequences than the illness itself.

The principal disorders that the one-dog owner is likely to encounter, are probably distemper, worms, skin diseases, fits and other various temporary stomach and intestinal ailments, most of which right themselves by the administration of a dose of castor oil or some other purgative.

Very frequently a dog will go off form due to overeating or perhaps because of devouring something that was harmful, or possibly because of lack of exercise. In most cases this is only temporary and the animal will doctor himself, provided he has access to grass. Do not be alarmed if your dog eats grass upon occasion, even though he partakes of it copiously. He is simply finding in this green element a nature remedy that will act as a conditioner. Fortunate is the canine that has the opportunity to do this, for he is thus finding a home remedy which is perhaps more[107] effective than the most skilled veterinarian might be able to prescribe.

Sometimes old dogs suffer from constipation and it is well, occasionally, to put a little olive oil in their food, or even resort to a purgative. One of the best ever-ready remedies I know of is equal parts olive oil, cascara sagrada and castor oil. This may be mixed up and kept on hand indefinitely as there is nothing in it that will spoil. If your dog should go off his feed without showing any symptoms of something more serious coming on, give him, if he is a dog of from thirty to forty-five pounds, a tablespoonful of this night and morning for four or five days, and he will soon come back to his natural form. For smaller or larger dogs the dosage should be graded accordingly. All dog owners, however, should know when a dog is coming down with something serious. One of the most dreaded ailments is distemper, a contagious disease which may be communicated either by direct contact with a dog which has distemper, by[108] being put in a place that was recently occupied by a distempered animal, or by associating with a dog which might be himself immune, but which had recently come from a place where he was exposed. In this manner such a dog is able to carry the disease even to some distant locality. Thus many dogs have been subjected to disease through their companions which were exhibited at bench shows, and which, though immune themselves, carried it home to their kennel companions.

First of all it should be said that the normal temperature of the dog is from 100 to 100 1/2 degrees when taken under the forearm or inside of the thigh. Taken per rectum it is one degree higher. This temperature may vary some in the larger and the smaller breeds, but it is the general average. If the dog appears listless, apathetic, refuses to eat and possibly begins to sneeze or water at the eyes, if his temperature has gone three or four degrees above normal, then it may be taken for granted that he is in the first stages of distemper. On the[109] other hand, he may only show the dullness and the high temperature; there may be no discharge from the eyes or nose, but a dry, husky tell-tale cough may be noted. Any of these forms are the symptoms of distemper and the victim should be isolated at once and the first act should be to administer a liberal dose of castor oil. At this stage I have found it very efficacious to give quinine and hyposulphite of soda, each in two-grain doses, either together or one following the other within half an hour, four times a day. The dog must be placed in a warm and dry room and should not be allowed to go out for anything. The room should be kept at a temperature of seventy degrees, but must be ventilated by windows opening from above so that there can be no draughts with which the victim will come in contact. The disinfectant used should also be some dry form, such as the various sanitary sawdust preparations that are on the market. Any dampness in the room is detrimental to the patient. The principal[110] thing to remember in distemper is good care, for it will be found more effective than medicine, whether given in serum form or by mouth. The dog’s strength must be kept up and to this end eggs, broth, and even finely chopped up raw beef in small quantities will be beneficial. Some kennel men object to the beef, but nevertheless many a dog will eat this where he refuses everything else and certainly nothing is more nutritious than beef. Every symptom must be combated as it arises and many complications are likely to set in. One thing must always be kept in mind, and that is, to make the dog take nourishment, for once he refuses to eat, then the case is practically hopeless.

Those who prefer the serum treatment should begin giving it, as per directions, subcutaneously, with hypodermic syringe. There are several good serums or vaccines on the market, but the one that I have had the most experience with is that put up by a Detroit laboratory. This firm[111] makes not only a curative vaccine, but one known as a preventative. It is useless to give the prophylactic or preventative after the dog has once been exposed. Rather await the earliest developments and then begin with the curative and give the six doses as per direction. Begin with bulb number one and follow up at the intervals indicated until all have been given. In the meantime, however, exercise the usual care in the way of even temperature in the place where the patient is confined and in the matter of diet. This is imperative, no matter what treatment is being used. The prophylactic or curative treatment consists of three doses. It is also given with hypodermic syringe, subcutaneously. It is well to keep this serum on hand to use if one expects to show his dog or run him in field trials, but the treatment should be given at least a month before the time he is to appear in public. The success of this serum treatment seems to be general, although many breeders have no faith in it. This may be due[112] to the fact that they begin too late or failed to follow instructions. The treatment is supposed to combat all symptoms that arise in the most virulent cases of distemper.

The worst complication of all distempers is that affecting the nervous system; the brain and its membrane may become inflamed and fits follow, or the spinal cord and its membranes are attacked, in which event paralysis or chorea, or sometimes both occur. These can be overcome, but it is a long drawn out and a very uncertain thing. Generally, chorea occurs after the virulent phase of the disease is passed and it is mostly due to too early exposure. The patient should not be allowed to go out of doors or get excited in any way until the temperature has been normal for at least ten days.

Common sense and good nursing win out more times than all the medicine, but the complications as they arise must be combated. For instance, the eyes must be looked after. The discharge should be washed away[113] frequently during the day with a warm boracic acid solution by dissolving one teaspoonful of the boracic acid in half a pint of warm water. The following lotion should be used afterward as it will help keep the eyes clear:

Chinosol3 grains
Water6 ounces

As the dog recovers from the distemper and the eyes have that opaque appearance so often noted, use an ointment made of 1 grain yellow oxide of mercury mixed with one dram of vaseline. Drop a bit about the size of a pea into the corner and rub well under the lids. Sometimes red pustules will appear all over the underbody and occasionally on all parts of the body. This should be treated with the ordinary mange remedies. At other times the disease attacks the bowels, which must then be looked after. Try bismuth in ten grain doses for medium-sized dogs. If this does not stop the diarrhea, then the following mixture might be effective:


Powdered Extract of Kino1 dram
Powdered Ipecacuanha8 grains
Powdered Opium6 grains
Mix and divide into twelve pills.

Dose, from one-half to two pills, according to the size of the dog, four times a day. After the acute stage is passed, then a good tonic is desirable and for this purpose either Le Roy’s Condition Pills, Sergeant’s or Glover’s are useful.

Another serious complication that frequently arrives is when it attacks the lungs, and this is not at all uncommon; pneumonia being one of the situations to guard against. Where there is a sudden rise in temperature and the dog is inclined to sit on his haunches, bracing himself on his forelegs, which are spread far apart, and his breathing comes fast and sharp, it may be taken for granted that pneumonia is the cause. By placing the ear to the chest one can hear the labored breathing which sounds very much like someone walking over frozen snow.

If the dog is not already wearing a chest jacket make one for him at once.[115] Sometimes strong liniments are effective. But one of the simplest things to use is hot lard and turpentine. Grease the chest well with this, wrap flannels around him and put the jacket over all. Apply fresh turpentine and lard every two hours, until the breathing is easier. The following is a very good formula to use internally:

Extract of Belladonna1/2 grain
James’ Powder4 grains
Nitrate of Potash8 grains
Extract of Gentian, enough to make one pill

For medium-sized dogs make up twelve pills with the above ingredients and give 1 three times daily. If the fever does not subside readily it might be well to give them drops of aconite in a tablespoonful of water, every three hours. Perpetual vigilance is necessary in the successful combating of pneumonia and as in every other phase of distemper, care and good nursing are most important. For a more extended treatise on distemper, “Dogcraft,” third edition, will be of great benefit to all dog owners.


Few dogs go through life without having Worms at some time in their career and in the case of puppies, we doubt if any ever escape these intestinal pests. Usually the kennel owner or dealer, worms the puppies before he sells them, hence the future owner has little to fear, although it must not be supposed that when a vermifuge is given to a puppy once or even two or three times during his young life, that he will be forever free from worms. On the other hand, he is likely to have them at any time, though the danger of fatal results is far less.

There are numerous remedies that may be used very effectively for the various kinds of worms, such as areca nut, santonin, pink and senna, kamala, etc., but I believe the safest plan for the novice is to procure any one of the reliable proprietary remedies that are on the market, for it will be less trouble to give these and there is little danger of going wrong, which might be the case were the neophyte to dabble with unknown drugs.


For Tape Worm—and many more dogs suffer from this than one might suppose—kamala and areca nut in equal parts is very effective. That is, for large dogs give two grains (one grain of each drug) to the pound weight of the dog after fasting twenty-four to thirty-six hours. One hour after giving the vermifuge the dog should have a liberal dose of castor oil. The symptoms of tape worm are varied. The dog may have a capricious appetite, his coat becomes harsh and stary, he looks thin and emaciated and he has a habit of rubbing his sides and back up along fences or buildings. His breath is usually offensive and his eyes lack luster and frequently form pus in the corners.

In the South the Hook Worm is the bane of all dog owners and it is becoming more prevalent every year. Indeed, of late years it has been invading the North also, which is probably due to field trials and bench shows, as dogs from the North are taken South where they become infested and thus bring the pests back to[118] their homes. Recently a very good specific for hook worms has been discovered and from all accounts it is giving excellent results. The drug is carbon tetrachloride. The dose is one drop for each pound weight of the dog after fasting twenty-four hours. The drug should be placed in hard capsules and administered in that manner. It is not necessary to follow with a purgative as is the case with most other vermifuges. This new remedy has been given to very young puppies with the best results. It should always be remembered, however, that the dosage should be one drop to the pound weight of the dog, no matter how large or how small he is.

A dog affected with hook worms usually grows very thin, is dull and apathetic, his coat is harsh and unnatural, his eyes lack fire and he has little or no ambition, but the greatest tell-tale sign of all is his gums and the mucous membrane of his eyes. Instead of being a healthy pink, they become white and waxy. When the gums and mouth are in this condition,[119] then it is time to begin treatment for hook worms.

One of the common disturbances that house dogs are subject to is Fits. It is rather disheartening to the novice to see his dog roll over suddenly and become stiff and rigid, for in most cases he is at a loss what to do. Fits arise from various causes; through worms, constitutional nervous disorders, the aftermath of distemper, but in most cases with house dogs, because of constipation or indigestion. If the trouble is due to the two latter causes, then they may be easily overcome by a change of diet and more exercise, for there is where the trouble generally lies. The dog is fed heartily, frequently of indigestible food, he obtains little or no exercise and the inevitable result is a disarrangement of bowels, stomach or liver. If the fits are the aftermath of distemper, the dog may outgrow them, but if they are constitutional, then little or nothing can be done. However, it is fits of the first order—that is, due to derangement of the digestive organs—which[120] are the commonest among house dogs. The victim may suddenly fall over, or he may remain on his feet, and if he does, the toe nails will dig into the rug or carpet in a way that once seen will always be recognized. These seizures are generally easily overcome by applying warm applications to the abdomen, or hand massage. The victim, however, should be given a purgative once a day for several days, and if there is reason to suspect worms, a vermifuge is not out of order. Exercise him in the open every day, but do not overdo this at first. In severe cases an enema may be given once daily, for three days following the attack, in place of giving the castor oil.

The more alarming cases of fits are seizures which attack highly-strung young dogs of an extremely nervous temperament. These fits usually attack the animal when he is out at exercise and they cause such violent contortions that many an ignorant person might suppose the dog to be mad. A dog suffering in this way,[121] may be going along nicely when suddenly he will utter a distressing cry, stagger a few times and fall down in convulsions. While in this condition he will snap wildly at anyone or anything near him. Unless secured his next proceeding is to get up and run; he seems to be wholly deaf to the voice of his master and does not even recognize him. Sometimes, after recovering from the attack, he will be unable to distinguish his master for several hours. The owner of a dog subject to such fits should take prompt measures to secure him while he is in one of these paroxysms, or he will run amuck when he arises and there will be difficulty in catching him. It is such dogs which frequently cause the reports of mad dogs being in a neighborhood and many a poor innocent victim is dispatched, an innocent sacrifice, immolated on the altar of ignorance. Naturally, the owner of the dog is not likely to have medicines near at hand when his dog is thus attacked, and in such a contingency, the best thing to do is to dash cold[122] water on his head and in his face, continuing this for several minutes. Get the dog home as soon as possible, then administer a dose of castor oil, or the preparation recommended for constipation, namely, equal parts olive oil, castor oil and cascara sagrada. After this, begin a course of bromide; the dosage being from two to fifteen grains according to the size of the animal, to be given twice daily. The food should be nourishing, but not too stimulating, and in small quantities at a time; it is well to feed three times daily, each meal to be about one-half an ordinary one. Remove all causes of nervous excitement and build up the dog by common-sense treatment.

Rabies is not common, but nevertheless it is a real affliction of the canine race, consequently if your dog has been bitten by a supposedly rabid dog it is well to keep him isolated to watch results. Rabies may appear at any time from eight days to three months after being bitten by a mad dog, hence great care is essential. The[123] disease can only be communicated through a bite or where the saliva of a rabid dog comes in contact with an abrasion of the skin. The owner of a single dog who never allows his animal to run at large except when he is present is not likely to ever encounter rabies, but it is well to know the symptoms in case such a contingency does occur. Not all dogs bitten by a dog known to suffer from rabies is likely to contract the disease, hence one must not become hysterical at once and destroy the animal so exposed. Rather isolate him and watch developments. The disease, as is well known, is communicable to all animals, even to the human species, but with the latter the percentage is very small indeed.

The first symptoms are a rise in temperature from two to three degrees above normal. The dog will constantly lick himself at some particular spot which is probably the place where he was bitten and inoculated. The disposition of the victim undergoes an entire change. The cheerful one becomes[124] morose and sullen, the quiet one is restless, and the ordinarily good-tempered dog quarrelsome and inclined to hide in dark corners, although when called will generally come to his master and probably be very affectionate. Frothing of the mouth, as generally supposed, is not a symptom of the rabid dog. The mouth may be more moist than normal at first, but it soon becomes dry and of a very dark red color. The rabid dog is very much inclined to attack others; the timid pet without provocation will attack others much larger than himself and after biting his victim will emit a peculiar howl, which when once heard will never be mistaken. The rabid dog’s voice undergoes an entire alteration which is one of the decided characteristics of the disease. It begins with a peculiar sharp bark and ends with a dismal howl. If the animal obtains his liberty he will wander for miles on a kind of dog trot, with head and tail lowered, going out of his way to attack dogs and other animals, but usually[125] remaining away from human beings, unless they interfere with him. In a day or two he will return to his home. He will refuse any kind of food, but he will gnaw at sticks, stones, timber or anything that may be near him. He will drink water until his throat becomes so swollen that it is impossible for him to swallow, but even then he will attempt to drink by putting his nose in a pail or basin of water. He becomes weaker rapidly and if not killed, will die in four or five days.

In Dumb Rabies the lower jaw is dropped and the dog is unable to close his mouth. It is not often that a rabid dog will attack his master, but he will fly at a stranger without provocation. There is no cure for either form of rabies and as soon as one is convinced that the dog is suffering with the disease he should be put out of his misery by a painless death.

As I have said, rabies is very uncommon and many kennel men have gone through life without ever having seen a case, though it is the height of[126] folly to dismiss the subject on this account and proclaim there is no such disease. It is very real and should be guarded against. There are many cases of pseudo rabies that one hears about through the daily newspapers which are merely the creations of some fanatic or ignorant persons who would not recognize the true from the false if they saw them.

Skin Troubles such as the various forms of mange and eczema are likely to occur occasionally though the owner of one or two dogs need not worry about this if he grooms his dogs and cares for them as indicated in the chapters of this book. A very good ointment to have on hand in case of skin trouble is the following:

Flowers of sulphur4 ounces
Oil of tar2 ounces
Carbolic acid2 drams

Add this to twelve ounces of linseed oil and stir well in order to thoroughly mix the ingredients. Apply to affected parts or abrasions of the skin. It is scarcely necessary to say that when this ointment is applied to the[127] dog’s coat he must be forbidden to house unless one wishes to have his rugs, carpets and furniture ruined.

Poisoning is one of the banes of a dog owner’s existence, for one is likely to encounter the poison fiend anywhere at any time. However, there are also many cases of accidental poisoning. Whether accidental or otherwise, the majority of cases occur through arsenic, strychnine or powdered glass.

From the symptoms displayed one can usually determine the kind of poison used. Strychnine causes pain, twitching, possibly vomiting and purging. In fatal cases, convulsions with prolonged spasms of the muscles, with more or less frequent relaxation. This continues until death ends the struggle.

Arsenic causes gastritis and enteritis, hence a burning thirst, vomiting and purging, the dog usually dying from exhaustion or collapse.

Ground glass poisoning will produce bloody discharges, great pain and distress and frequently vomiting[128] of blood. There is no relief for the victim of such an experience and the most humane thing to do is to put the dog to death promptly by administering chloroform.

In the treatment of arsenical and strychnine poisoning, the primary object should be to get the poison out of the system as soon as possible. To this end emetics should be administered promptly, unless the animal is already vomiting freely. As an emetic, fifteen to twenty grains of sulphate of zinc in a teaspoonful of wine of ipecac is very good, but if this is not at hand, anything should be resorted to that will produce the desired results, such as mustard or baking soda in lukewarm water. In strychnine poisoning every effort should be made to neutralize the effect of the poison on the spinal cord. Bromide of potassium and chloral hydrate are the best. Either may be given to medium-sized dogs by mouth or rectum in twenty-grain doses. This may be repeated at short intervals until one dram has been given. In all[129] cases of poisoning except phosphorus, which is very rare, oil may be given, also calcined magnesia or lime water, as they are harmless and protect the stomach mechanically. Other simple things, such as white of eggs, flour, etc., may be used with good effect. For arsenical poisoning the best antidote is hydrated oxide of iron. This can be prepared quickly by adding baking soda to tincture of iron so long as there is any effervescence. When the neutral point has been reached, it may be given freely in teaspoonful doses, every ten minutes.


By A. F. Hochwalt

Third Edition—Revised and Enlarged

Here is a book every sportsman will want to have in his library for ready reference—and study. It tells everything you want to know about dogs—290 pages of expert information.

DOGCRAFT is a complete study of the various breeds of dogs; their care and management in health and disease. You will find many interesting chapters on gun dogs, sight hunters, house and watch dogs, pastoral dogs—and you’ll find out just how the particular breed you are interested in should be trained and cared for.

If you have one dog or a dozen dogs, you will want a copy of this splendid book

Clothbound, $2.00 Paperbound, $1.50

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio

Practical Dog-Keeping

For the Amateur

Written so as to be Understood

By A. F. Hochwalt

the eminent authority and writer

The author has compiled in this valuable book a mass of facts and information in a clear and concise style that can be understood by every one. He has avoided unfamiliar terms and used only words and phrases of our every-day language.

All phases of dog-keeping are carefully explained—the latest methods in feeding, conditioning and grooming—directions on care in case of sickness—observations on breeding—proper diets, and many other important subjects.

If you own a dog and want to know the latest and best methods of caring for it, THIS BOOK WILL PROVE INVALUABLE.

25 Illustrations
Prices: Cloth, $1.50; Paper, $1.00

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio

The Working Dog
and His Education

By A. F. Hochwalt

Are you training a dog? Is he responding to your methods? Are you satisfied with the results? Would you like to compare your methods with those of famous trainers? Do you want to learn about their methods?—If you do—


Interesting chapters on the training of pointers, setters, foxhounds, beagles, Airedales, spaniels, and police dogs. Various systems are described, the best method of breaking faults and correcting bad habits are explained.

It is the work of an expert, written so that the amateur may understand. Every rule in it has been tried and proven. You can rely on the directions given to always produce results.

Price, $1.00

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio

A Splendid Book Every Camper Will
Want in His Kit

Camp Cookery

By Horace Kephart

Author of “Camping and Woodcraft,”
“The Hunting Rifle,” etc.

Illustrated with Pen Drawings of Useful Camp Utensils, Outfits, Etc.

If you want to fully enjoy your next camping trip, learn the fundamentals of camp cooking from a man who has spent many years in the woods. This instructive, valuable book tells you what provisions are essential; what utensils you really need; how to build and get the best results from camp fires; how to dress and keep game, fish, etc. Three interesting chapters tell you all about the preparation of meat, game, fish and shellfish. The author tells you just how to prepare cured meats, eggs, breadstuffs, cereals, vegetables, soups, beverages and dessert. Nothing has been overlooked.

You’ll enjoy your next trip to the woods much more after reading and profiting by the valuable suggestions contained in this book

154 Pages Clothbound $1.50

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio

The Modern Pointer

By A. F. Hochwalt

The object of this book is to briefly consider the development of a dog which for many years has been one of the favorites of the sportsman, and which is likely to continue so for all time to come.

This is an interesting story of the short-haired dog and his rapid progress in this country. If you are a lover of the bird dog, you’ll want a copy of this book. It is six by nine inches in size, contains 162 pages and 23 full page illustrations. Bound in silk cloth with gold lettering.

Price, $2.00 per Copy, Postpaid

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio

What Sportsman’s Digest Will Do
Every Month for YOU

It Entertains You

with actual-experience stories of the great outdoors. Some of the most prominent sportsman-writers of the country are monthly contributors to SPORTSMAN’S DIGEST.

Among them are such well-known writers as Morris Ackerman, Ben C. Robinson, L. H. Sweet, A. F. Hochwalt, Raymond Thompson, L. E. Eubanks, Robert Page Lincoln and scores of others.

It Offers Valuable Suggestions

in connection with your hunting, fishing and camping trips and enables you to profit by the experience of sportsmen who have made a study of these health-bringing outings.

It Answers Every Question

of every kind regarding the Great Outdoors. The Quizz Cabin will enlighten you on those points on which you are not entirely clear. A mint of valuable information will be found each month in this most interesting department.

It Keeps You in Touch with the World of Sports

even though you are busily engaged in the business of making a living. SPORTSMAN’S DIGEST will quickly make you forget any worldly cares—seated by your fireside or on the front porch, you’ll travel all over the country—mentally—after big and little game and the voracious battlers of the mountain streams and lakes.

Twelve Big Illustrated Numbers

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Every Bird Dog Fancier Should Have a Copy of

The Modern Setter

By A. F. Hochwalt

A complete history of the long-haired bird dog. Nothing has been left unsaid. Chapters on the Llewellin and Laverack setters—chapters on every family that assisted in making bird dog history—interesting anecdotes on field trials and field trial happenings—it is a complete story of the various breeds of setter, from their origin down to the present day. Bench show and field trial dogs compared; Irish and Gordon setters fully dwelt upon.

No book on the bird dog has ever been written or is likely to be written that is as comprehensive as this new work.

Size of book—six by nine; bound in silk cloth and gold lettering. Twenty-six full page illustrations; 239 pages of interesting reading matter.

Price per Copy $4.00, Postpaid

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio


Training and Kennel Management

By Er. M. Shelley

Every owner and every person interested in bird dogs and hunting dogs should have a copy of this valuable book.

Into this book Mr. Shelley has put the best of his knowledge, gained from years of experience as a successful trainer and handler. It is authoritative and interesting, and it throws many new lights upon the old system of bird dog training.

Containing many fine illustrations, and being handsomely bound in cloth, this is an attractive as well as useful volume that you cannot afford to be without.

Price, Postpaid, $2.00

Butler Building Cincinnati, Ohio

Transcriber’s Notes:

Illustrations have been moved to paragraph breaks near where they are mentioned.

Punctuation has been made consistent.

Variations in spelling and hyphenation were retained as they appear in the original publication, except that obvious typographical errors have been corrected.